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India A Snapshot

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India at a Glance

June, 2012


Home to Indus valley civilisation, India had been a host to vast empires and historic trade routes. With a population of over 1 billion, the country truly represents 'unity in diversity'. The Indian sub-continent is not only a land of rich cultural heritage and social diversity, but also is becoming one of the most viable investment destinations for global investors. India enjoys the honor of being the world's third largest economy and is poised to become the largest one by 2050 in terms of purchasing power parity.

Location: India lies to the north of the equator in Southern Asia

Latitude: 8° 4' to 37° 6' north

Longitude: 68° 7' to 97° 25' east

Neighbouring Countries: Pakistan and Afghanistan share political borders with India on the West while Bangladesh and Myanmar stand adjacent on the Eastern borders. The northern boundary comprises the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. Sri Lanka is another neighbouring country which is separated by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

Capital: New Delhi

Coastline: 7,517 km, including the mainland, the coastlines of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshwadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea.

Climate: Southern India majorly enjoys tropical climate but northern India experiences temperatures from sub-zero degrees to 50 degrees Celsius. Winters embrace northern India during December to February while springs blossom in March and April. Monsoons arrive in July and stay till September, followed by autumn in October and November.

Area: India measures 3,214 km from north to south and 2,933 km from east to west with a total land area of 3,287,263 sq km.

Natural Resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land.

Land: 2,973,190 sq km

Water: 314,070 sq km

Political Profile

Political System and Government:

The world's largest democracy implemented its Constitution in 1950 that provided for a parliamentary system of Government with a bicameral parliament and three independent branches: the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The country has a federal structure with elected governments in States.

Administrative Divisions: 28 States and 7 Union Territories

Constitution: The Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950