The Indian textile industry is one of the major sectors of Indian economy largely contributing towards the growth of the country's industrial sector. Textiles sector contributes to 14 per cent of industrial production, 4 per cent of National GDP and 10.63 per cent of country's export earnings. The opening up of the sector through liberalisation polices set up by the Indian Government have given the much-needed thrust to the Indian textile industry, which has now successfully become one of the largest in the world. Textile sector in India provides direct employment to over 35 million people and holds the second position after the agriculture sector in providing employment to the masses.
Growing at a rapid pace, the Indian Market is being flocked by foreign investors exploring investment purposes and with an increasing trend in the demand for the textile products in the country, a number of new companies and joint ventures are being set up in the country to capture new opportunities in the market.
The Indian textile industry can be divided into a number of segments such as cotton, silk, woolen, readymade, jute and handicraft. The total cloth production registered during September 2010 was 10.2 per cent higher than that registered for September 2009. The total production of cloth during April – September 2010 increased by 2.1 per cent as compared to the period April – September 2009. The highest growth was observed in the power loom sector (13.2 per cent), followed by hosiery sector (9.1 per cent).
The total textile exports during April-July 2010 (provisional) were valued at US$ 7.58 billion as against US$ 7.21 billion during the corresponding period of the previous year. The share of textile exports in total exports was 11.04 per cent during April-July 2010. Cotton textiles has registered a growth of 8.2 per cent during April-September 2010 -11, whilewool, silk and man-made fibre textiles have registered a growth of 2.2 per cent while textile products including apparel have registered a growth of 3 per cent. Textiles and apparel industry exports, valued at US$ 20.02 billion, contributed about 11.5 per cent to the country's total exports in 2008–09. The total textiles imports into India in 2008–09 were valued at US$ 3.33 billion.
The total foreign exchange earnings from the textile exports during the current financial year (April-July 2011) was registered at US$ 10.32 billion against US$ 7.75 billion during the corresponding period of financial year 2010-11.
India has the potential to increase its textile and apparel share in the world trade from the current level of 4.5 per cent to 8 per cent and reach US$ 80 billion by the end of the year 2020.
The Textile sector grew at 3-4 per cent during the last 6 decades. As per the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), it was projected to fast-track to a growth rate of 16 per cent in value and is further expected to reach US$ 115 billion (exports US$ 55 billion and domestic market US$ 60 billion) by 2012. Exports are likely to reach US$ 32 billion in 2011-12 and domestic market US$ 55 billion.
The Government of India has promoted a number of export promotion policies for the Textile sector in the Union Budget 2011-12 and the Foreign Trade Policy 2009-14. This also includes the various incentives under Focus Market Scheme and Focus Product Scheme; broad basing the coverage of Market Linked Focus Product Scheme for textile products and extension of Market Linked Focus Product Scheme etc. to increase the Indian shares in the global trade of textiles and clothing. The various schemes and promotions by the Government of India are as follows -
Welfare Schemes: The Government has offered health insurance coverage and life insurance coverage to 161.10 million weavers and ancillary workers under the Handloom Weavers' Comprehensive Welfare Scheme, while 733,000 artisans were provided health coverage under the Rajiv Gandhi Shilpi Swasthya Bima Yojna.
E-Marketing: The Central Cottage Industries Corporation of India (CCIC), and the Handicrafts and Handlooms Export Corporation of India (HHEC) have developed a number of e-marketing platforms to simplify marketing issues. Also, a number of marketing initiatives have been taken up to promote niche handloom and handicraft products with the help of 600 events all over the country.
Skill Development: As per the 12th FYP, the Integrated Skill Development Scheme aims to train over 2,675,000 people within the next 5 years (this would cover over 270,000 people during the first two years and the rest during the remaining three years). This scheme would cover all sub sectors of the textile sector such as Textiles and Apparel; Handicrafts; Handlooms; Jute; and Sericulture.
Credit Linkages: As per the Credit Guarantee program, over 25,000 Artisan Credit Cards have been supplied to artisans, and 16.50 million additional applications for issuing up credit cards have been forwarded to banks for further consideration with regards to the Credit Linkage scheme.
Financial package for waiver of overdues: The Government of India has announced a package of US$ 604.56 million to waive of overdue loans in the handloom sector. This also includes the waiver of overdue loans and interest till 31st March, 2010, for loans disbursed to handloom sector. This is expected to benefit at least 300,000 handloom weavers of the industry and 15,000 cooperative societies.
Textiles Parks: The Indian Government has given approval to 21 new Textiles Parks to be set up and this would be executed over a period of 36 months. The new Textiles Parks would leverage employment to 400,000 textiles workers. The product mix in these parks would include apparels and garments parks, hosiery parks, silk parks, processing parks, technical textiles including medical textiles, carpet and power loom parks.
With the increase in investments in the Indian textile sector, the subsequent increase in the industrial production, and the positivity observed by the Textile sector has resulted in progress and development of the sector. Integrating the sectoral needs and continued investments with technical advancements will completely modernize the industry chains across the country, and further assist in reaping benefits for the Indian Textile sector.
Exchange rate used: INR 1= US$ 0.02015 February 23, 2012
References: Ministry of Textiles, Indian Textile Journal, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Press Information Bureau