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India A Snapshot

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About India at a Glance

March, 2013


India is continuously strengthening its strategic position on the world map as it is increasingly opening-up to the international standards, culture and business opportunities. Economic liberalisation (including industrial de-regulation, privatisation, and reduction of controls over foreign trade and investments) was implemented in early 1990s and has spurred growth for the country like never-before. India’s diverse economy encompasses conventional village farming, advanced agriculture, unique handicrafts, a plethora of modern industries and a huge basket of professional services. India has leveraged on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of technical services like IT and software. Owing to its robust financial system and strong domestic demand, the country came out strong through the 2010-financial crisis that caused huge damages to other developed economies.

Indian economy has made significant progress over the last few years, with the gross domestic product (GDP) growing at an average rate of 5.3 per cent. The country is the world’s third largest economy in terms of the purchasing power parity (PPP) and has investments amounting to nearly a trillion dollars lined up in partnership with the private sector in the coming years.

Location: India lies to the north of the equator in Southern Asia

Latitude: 8° 4' to 37° 6' north

Longitude: 68° 7' to 97° 25' east

Neighbouring Countries: Pakistan and Afghanistan share political borders with India on the West while Bangladesh and Myanmar stand adjacent on the Eastern borders. The northern boundary comprises the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. Sri Lanka is another neighbouring country which is separated by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

Capital: New Delhi

Coastline: 7517 km, including the mainland, the coastlines of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshwadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea.

Climate: Southern India majorly enjoys tropical climate but northern India experiences temperatures from sub-zero degrees to 50 degrees Celsius. Winters embrace northern India during December to February while springs blossom in March and April. Monsoons arrive in July and stay till September, followed by autumn in October and November.

Area: India measures 3, 214 km from north to south and 2, 933 km from east to west with a total land area of 3,287,263 sq km.

Natural Resources: Coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land.

Land: 2,973,190 sq km

Water: 314,070 sq km

Political Profile

Political System and Government:

The world's largest democracy implemented its Constitution in 1950 that provided for a parliamentary system of Government with a bicameral parliament and three independent branches: the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The country has a federal structure with elected governments in States.

Administrative Divisions: 28 States and 7 Union Territories

Constitution: The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950