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India at a Glance

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India at a Glance

September, 2012


India has made a mark for itself on the global canvas owing to its vast young population, burgeoning investment opportunities and intensifying acceptance of the international culture. The world's largest democracy and second most populous country, India is militarily strong and economically sound.

The vast and diverse Indian sub-continent - from the mountainous Afghan frontier to the jungles of Burma - remained under the foreign rule from the early 1800s until the termination of the British Raj in 1947, and the country has not looked back since then.

India is enjoying its position as a strategic international trade partner. While the country is anticipated to become the third largest auto industry by volumes after China and the US by 2015, it is predicted that Indian banking sector would be the world's third largest in asset size by 2025. Similarly, India's consumer market is expected to grow two-and-a-half times by 2025, from current Rs 43 trillion (US$ 796.88 billion) to Rs 110 trillion (US$ 2.04 trillion). Thus, such humongous forecasts about the South-Asian country clearly reflect the fact that India is a major investment destination - for present as well as for the future.

Location: India lies to the north of the equator in Southern Asia

Latitude: 8° 4' to 37° 6' north

Longitude: 68° 7' to 97° 25' east

Neighbouring Countries: Pakistan and Afghanistan share political borders with India on the West while Bangladesh and Myanmar stand adjacent on the Eastern borders. The northern boundary comprises the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. Sri Lanka is another neighbouring country which is separated by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

Capital: New Delhi

Coastline: 7517 km, including the mainland, the coastlines of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshwadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea.

Climate: Southern India majorly enjoys tropical climate but northern India experiences temperatures from sub-zero degrees to 50 degrees Celsius. Winters embrace northern India during December to February while springs blossom in March and April. Monsoons arrive in July and stay till September, followed by autumn in October and November.

Area: India measures 3, 214 km from north to south and 2, 933 km from east to west with a total land area of 3,287,263 sq km.

Natural Resources: Coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land.

Land: 2,973,190 sq km

Water: 314,070 sq km

Political Profile

Political System and Government:

The world's largest democracy implemented its Constitution in 1950 that provided for a parliamentary system of Government with a bicameral parliament and three independent branches: the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The country has a federal structure with elected Governments in States.

Administrative Divisions: 28 States and 7 Union Territories

Constitution: The Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950