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Banking Sector in India

February, 2018


As per the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), India’s banking sector is sufficiently capitalised and well-regulated. The financial and economic conditions in the country are far superior to any other country in the world. Credit, market and liquidity risk studies suggest that Indian banks are generally resilient and have withstood the global downturn well.

Indian banking industry has recently witnessed the roll out of innovative banking models like payments and small finance banks. RBI’s new measures may go a long way in helping the restructuring of the domestic banking industry.

The digital payments system in India has evolved the most among 25 countries with India’s Immediate Payment Service (IMPS) being the only system at level 5 in the Faster Payments Innovation Index (FPII).*

In August 2017, Global rating agency Moody's announced that its outlook for the Indian banking system was stable. In November 2017, Global rating agency Moody's upgraded four Indian banks from Baa3 to Baa2.

Market Size

  • The Indian banking system consists of 27 public sector banks, 26 private sector banks, 46 foreign banks, 56 regional rural banks, 1,574 urban cooperative banks and 93,913 rural cooperative banks, in addition to cooperative credit institutions. Public-sector banks control more than 70 per cent of the banking system assets, thereby leaving a comparatively smaller share for its private peers. Banks are also encouraging their customers to manage their finances using mobile phones.
  • As the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) allows more features such as unlimited fund transfers between wallets and bank accounts, mobile wallets are expected to become strong players in the financial ecosystem.
  • The unorganised retail sector in India has huge untapped potential for adopting digital mode of payments, as 63 per cent of the retailers are interested in using digital payments like mobile and card payments, as per a report by Centre for Digital Financial Inclusion (CDFI).

ICRA estimates that credit growth in India’s banking sector would be at 7-8 per cent in FY 2017-18.


Key investments and developments in India’s banking industry include:

  • The bank recapitalisation plan by Government of India is expected to push credit growth in the country to 15 per cent and as a result help the GDP grow by 7 per cent in FY19. ^
  • Public sector banks are lining up to raise funds via qualified institutional placements (QIP), backed by better investor sentiment after the Government of India's bank recapitalisation plan and an upgrade in India's sovereign rating by Moody's Investor Service.
  • The RBI amends statutes thereby allowing lenders to invest in real estate investment trusts (REITs) and infrastructure investment trusts (InvITs) not exceeding 10 per cent of the unit capital of such instruments.

Government Initiatives

  • The Government of India is planning to introduce a two percentage point discount in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) on business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions made via digital payments.
  • A new portal named 'Udyami Mitra' has been launched by the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) with the aim of improving credit availability to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises' (MSMEs) in the country.
  • Mr Arun Jaitley, Minister of Finance, Government of India, introduced 'The Banking Regulation (Amendment) Bill,2017', which will replace the Banking Regulation (Amendment) Ordinance, 2017, to allow the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to guide banks for resolving the problems of stressed assets.

The government and the regulator have undertaken several measures to strengthen the Indian banking sector.

  • A two-year plan to strengthen the public sector banks through reforms and capital infusion of Rs 2.11 lakh crore (US$ 32.5 billion), has been unveiled by the Government of India that will enable these banks to play a much larger role in the financial system and give a boost to the MSME sector. In this regard, the Lok Sabha has approved recapitalisation bonds worth Rs 80,000 crore (US$ 12.62 billion) for public sector banks, which will be accompanied by a series of reforms, according to Mr Arun Jaitley, Minister of Finance, Government of India.
  • The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Ordinance, 2017 Bill has been passed by Rajya Sabha and is expected to strengthen the banking sector.

Road Ahead

Enhanced spending on infrastructure, speedy implementation of projects and continuation of reforms are expected to provide further impetus to growth. All these factors suggest that India’s banking sector is also poised for robust growth as the rapidly growing business would turn to banks for their credit needs.

Also, the advancements in technology have brought the mobile and internet banking services to the fore. The banking sector is laying greater emphasis on providing improved services to their clients and also upgrading their technology infrastructure, in order to enhance the customer’s overall experience as well as give banks a competitive edge.

Many banks, including HDFC, ICICI and AXIS are exploring the option to launch contact-less credit and debit cards in the market shortly. The cards, which use near field communication (NFC) mechanism, will allow customers to transact without having to insert or swipe.

Mr Bill Gates, Co-founder of Microsoft Corp, has stated that India will move quite rapidly to a digital payments economy in as little as seven years, based on the introduction of digital payment banks combined with other things like direct benefit transfers, universal payments interface and Aadhaar.

Exchange Rate Used: INR 1 = US$ 0.015 as on January 4, 2018.

References: Media Reports, Press releases, Reserve Bank of India, Press Information Bureau,, Union Budget 2017-18

Notes: ^ - according to a report by Ambit Capita,* - according to an FIS report