India’s textiles sector is one of the oldest industries in Indian economy dating back several centuries. Even today, textiles sector is one of the largest contributors to India’s exports with approximately 13 per cent of total exports. The textiles industry is also labour intensive and is one of the largest employers. The textile industry has two broad segments. First, the unorganised sector consists of handloom, handicrafts and sericulture, which are operated on a small scale and through traditional tools and methods. The second is the organised sector consisting of spinning, apparel and garments segment which apply modern machinery and techniques such as economies of scale.
The textile industry employs about 45 million people directly and 20 million people indirectly. India's overall textile exports during FY 2015-16 stood at US$ 40 billion.
The Indian textiles industry is extremely varied, with the hand-spun and hand-woven textiles sectors at one end of the spectrum, while the capital intensive sophisticated mills sector at the other end of the spectrum. The decentralised power looms/ hosiery and knitting sector form the largest component of the textiles sector. The close linkage of the textile industry to agriculture (for raw materials such as cotton) and the ancient culture and traditions of the country in terms of textiles make the Indian textiles sector unique in comparison to the industries of other countries. The Indian textile industry has the capacity to produce a wide variety of products suitable to different market segments, both within India and across the world.
The Indian textiles industry, currently estimated at around US$ 120 billion, is expected to reach US$ 230 billion by 2020. The Indian Textile Industry contributes approximately 2 per cent to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 10 per cent of manufacturing production and 14 per cent to overall Index of Industrial Production (IIP).
Indian khadi products sales increased by 33 per cent year-on-year to Rs 2,005 crore (US$ 311.31 million) in 2016-17 and is expected to exceed Rs 5,000 crore (US$ 776.33 million) sales target for 2018-19, as per the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).
The total area under cultivation of cotton in India is expected to increase by 7 per cent to 11.3 million hectares in 2017-18, on account of expectations of better returns from rising prices and improved crop yields during the year 2016-17.
Indian exports of locally made retail and lifestyle products grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10 per cent from 2013 to 2016, mainly led by bedding bath and home decor products and textiles#. The Government of India targets textile and garment sector exports at US$ 45 billion for 2017-18.
The textiles sector has witnessed a spurt in investment during the last five years. The industry (including dyed and printed) attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) worth US$ 2.55 billion during April 2000 to June 2017.
Some of the major investments in the Indian textiles industry are as follows:
The Indian government has come up with a number of export promotion policies for the textiles sector. It has also allowed 100 per cent FDI in the Indian textiles sector under the automatic route.
Initiative will be taken into consideration by Government of India.
The key initiatives announced in the Union Budget 2017-18 to boost the textiles sector are listed below:
Some of initiatives taken by the government to further promote the industry are as under:
The future for the Indian textile industry looks promising, buoyed by both strong domestic consumption as well as export demand. With consumerism and disposable income on the rise, the retail sector has experienced a rapid growth in the past decade with the entry of several international players like Marks & Spencer, Guess and Next into the Indian market. The apparel market in India is estimated to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 11.8 per cent to reach US$ 180 billion by 2025.
High economic growth has resulted in higher disposable income. This has led to rise in demand for products creating a huge domestic market. The domestic market for apparel and lifestyle products, currently estimated at US$ 85 billion, is expected to reach US$ 160 billion by 2025.
The Indian cotton textile industry is expected to showcase a stable growth in FY2017-18, supported by stable input prices, healthy capacity utilisation and steady domestic demand*.
Exchange Rate Used: INR 1 = US$ 0.015 as of October 6, 2017.
References: Ministry of Textiles, Indian Textile Journal, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Press Information Bureau, Union Budget 2017-18
Note: # - according to Damco, * - according to India Ratings and Research, ^ - according to the International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC)