India has a strong network of science & technology institutions and trained manpower. It has the third-largest scientific and technical manpower in the world with 162 universities awarding over 4,000 doctorates degrees and 35,000 post graduate degrees annually.
India is among the top-ranking countries in the field of basic research and ranks 12th in terms of the number of patents filed. India also ranks ninth globally in terms of the number of scientific publications.
India has been strengthening its position in research through investment. National Research and Development (R&D) expenditure has increased in India to around US$ 40 billion by 2014. India‘s R&D globalisation and services market is expected to reach US$ 38 billion by 2020. More than one-third of the top 1,000 global R&D spenders have centres in India. Going forward, India’s investment in R&D sector is expected to rise from 0.8 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to reach 2.4 per cent of GDP in 2034.
In recent years, the Government of India has implemented several fellowship schemes to nurture human capacity for advanced research in the country. The Government is also providing continued policy support in the form of Science, Technology & Innovation Policy 2013 and the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–17). Through Science, Technology and Innovation policy, the Government promotes mechanisms for nurturing technology business incubators and science led entrepreneurship.
Furthermore, 2010–2020 has been declared the ‘Decade of Innovation’ to stimulate innovations and produce solutions for societal needs such as healthcare, energy, infrastructure, water and transportation.