India has a strong network of science and technology institutions and trained manpower. It has the third-largest scientific and technical manpower in the world with 162 universities awarding over 4,000 doctorates degrees and 35,000 post graduate degrees annually. India’s gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) increased from Rs 65,961.33 crore (US$ 14.07 billion) in 2011-12 to Rs 1.04 lakh crore (US$ 16.27 billion) in 2016-17. India’s medical technology (MedTech) sector is forecasted to reach US$ 9.6 billion in 2022 and Rs 54,514 crore (US$ 7.8 billion) in 2020 from Rs 39,837 crore (US$ 5.7 billion) in 2017.
India is among the top-ranking countries in the field of basic research. IBM’s India inventors contributed over 800 patents in year 2017, making India the second highest contributor after the US region. In May 2018, CISR was awarded Clarivate Analytics India Innovation Award 2018 in the Government Research Organizations Category.
Under the Union Budget 2019-20, the Government of India announced the largest ever allocation of Rs 5,880 crore (US$ 841 million) to the Ministry of Science and Technology, Rs 2,580 crore (US$ 369.15 million) to Department of Biotechnology and Rs 4,895 crore (US$ 700.38 million) to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The Department of Atomic Energy has been allocated Rs 16,925.51 crore (US$ 2.32 billion). The Ministry of Earth Sciences was allocated Rs 1,901.76 crore (US$ 263.58 million), which is an increase of 5.65 per cent as against the previous budget.
The engineering R&D and product development market in India is forecasted to grow at a CAGR of 10.67 per cent to reach Rs 2.93 lakh crore (US$ 42 billion) by 2020 from Rs 1.95 lakh crore (US$ 28 billion) in FY18. India’s R&D investments are forecasted to increase to Rs 6.57 lakh crore (US$ 94.06 billion) in 2019F from an estimated Rs 6.02 lakh crore (US$ 86.24 billion) in 2018. The Government of India is extensively promoting research parks technology business incubators (TBIs) and (RPs) which would promote the innovative ideas till they become commercial ventures. In July 2018, Atal Innovation Mission along with MyGov launched “Innovate India Platform” with the aim of providing a common point for all the innovation happening across India. India Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launched space technology incubation center was launched in Tripura, Agartala. It is one of the six centers, planned to build national capacity in new locations, as of September 2018. The Government of India is planning to launch a National Artificial Intelligence Centre under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology by July 2019.