India has a strong network of science and technology institutions and trained manpower. It has the third-largest scientific and technical manpower in the world with 162 universities awarding over 4,000 doctorates degrees and 35,000 post graduate degrees annually. India’s gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) increased from Rs 65,961.33 crore (US$ 14.07 billion) in 2011-12 to Rs 104,864.03 crore (US$ 16.27 billion) in 2016-17.
India is among the top-ranking countries in the field of basic research. In 2017, patent applications by Indian start-ups increased 15 times to 909 from 61 in 2016. India was ranked 13 in 2017 by Nature Index, which publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs based on natural sciences in 2016. IBM’s India inventors contributed over 800 patents in year 2017, making India the second highest contributor after the US region. In May 2018, CISR was awarded Clarivate Analytics India Innovation Award 2018 in the Government Research Organizations Category.
The engineering R&D and product development market in India is forecasted to grow at a CAGR of 20.55 per cent to reach US$ 45 billion by 2020 from US$ 28 billion in FY18. India’s R&D investments are forecasted to increase to US$ 83.27 billion in 2018 from an estimated US$ 76.91 billion in 2017. In February 2018, the Union Cabinet has approved implementation of 'Prime Minister Research Fellows (PMRF)' scheme, which will promote the mission of development through innovation, at a total cost of Rs 1,650 crore (US$ 245.94 million) for a period of seven years beginning 2018-19.India is world’s third largest technology start up hub with incorporation of 1,000 new companies in 2017.The Government of India is extensively promoting research parks technology business incubators (TBIs) and (RPs) which would promote the innovative ideas till they become commercial ventures. In July 2018, Atal Innovation Mission along with MyGov launched “Innovate India Platform” with the aim of providing a common point for all the innovation happening across India.