India’s textiles sector is one of the oldest industries in the Indian economy, dating back to several centuries.
The industry is extremely varied, with hand-spun and hand-woven textiles sectors at one end of the spectrum, while the capital-intensive sophisticated mills sector on the other end. The decentralised power looms/ hosiery and knitting sector forms the largest component in the textiles sector. The close linkage of textiles industry to agriculture (for raw materials such as cotton) and the ancient culture and traditions of the country in terms of textiles makes it unique in comparison to other industries in the country. India’s textiles industry has a capacity to produce wide variety of products suitable for different market segments, both within India and across the world.
India’s textiles industry contributed 7% to the industry output (by value) in 2018-19. The Indian textiles and apparel industry contributed 2% to the GDP, 12% to export earnings and held 5% of the global trade in textiles and apparel in 2018-19.
The share of the India’s textiles and apparel exports in mercantile shipments was 11% in 2019-20.
Textiles industry has around 4.5 crore employed workers including 35.22 lakh handloom workers across the country.
Cotton production is expected to reach 37.10 million bales and consumption is expected to reach 114 million bales in FY21—13% growth over the previous year.
The domestic textiles and apparel market stood at an estimated US$ 100 billion in FY19.
The production of raw cotton in India is estimated to have reached 35.4 million bales in FY20^. During FY19, production of fibre in India stood at 1.44 million tonnes (MT) and reached 2.40 MT in FY21 (till January 2021), while that for yarn, the production stood at 4,762 million kgs during same period.
Exports of textiles (RMG of all textiles, cotton yarn/fabs./made-ups/handloom products, man-made yarn/fabs./made-ups, handicrafts excl. handmade carpets, carpets and jute mfg. including floor coverings) stood at US$ 2.99 billion, as of June 2021.
In July 2021, exports of cotton yarn/fabrics/made-ups, handloom products, etc., from India increased by 50.86% in June 2021 over June 2019.
The textiles sector has witnessed a spurt in investment during the last five years. The industry (including dyed and printed) attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) worth US$ 3.75 billion from April 2000 to March 2021.
In May 2021, Indo Count Industries Ltd. (ICIL), announced an investment of Rs. 200 crore (US$ 26.9 million) to expand its production capacity.
The production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme for man-made fibre and technical textiles will help boost manufacturing, increase exports and attract investments into the sector.
Indian government has come up with several export promotion policies for the textiles sector. It has also allowed 100% FDI in the sector under the automatic route.
Initiatives taken by Government of India are:
- In August 2021, Minister of State (MoS), Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas and Labour & Employment, Mr. Rameswar Teli launched ONGC-supported Assam handloom project ‘Ujjwal Abahan’ through the virtual platform. The project will support and train >100 artisans of Bhatiapar of Sivasagar, Assam in Hathkharga handicraft.
- In August 2021, Flipkart and Himachal Pradesh State Handicrafts and Handloom Corporation Ltd. (HPSHHCL) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to help the state’s master craftsmen, weavers and artisans showcase their hallmark products on e-commerce platforms.
- In August 2021, Union Minister of Textiles, Commerce and Industry, Consumer Affairs & Food and Public Distribution, Mr. Piyush Goyal said that steps need to be taken to boost production capacities of handloom sector from existing Rs. 60,000 crore (US$ 8.06 billion) to 125,000 crore (US$ 16.80 billion) in three years. He added that target must be set to increase exports of handloom items from existing Rs. 2,500 crore (US$ 335.92 million) to Rs. 10,000 crore (US$ 1.34 billion) in three years. He also announced that a committee will be constituted consisting of all weavers, trainer equipment makers, marketing experts and other stake holders to recommend ways and means to achieve these objectives and enhance overall progress of the handloom sector.
- In July 2021, the government extended the Rebate of State and Central Taxes and Levies (RoSCTL) scheme for exports of apparel/garments and made-ups until March 2021. This will help boost exports and enhance competitiveness in the labour-intensive textiles sector.
- In April 2021, Union Minister Smriti Irani has assured strong support from the Textile Ministry to reduce industry’s dependence on imported machine tools by partnering with engineering organisations for machinery production. She also stated that the PLI scheme for the textile industry is almost ready. The scheme aims to develop Man Made Fiber (MMF) apparel and technical textiles industry by providing incentive from 3-15% on stipulated incremental turnover for five years.
- To support the handloom weavers/weaver entrepreneurs, the Weaver MUDRA Scheme was launched to provide margin money assistance at 20% of the loan amount subject to a maximum of Rs. 10,000 (US$ 134.22) per weaver. The loan is provided at an interest rate of 6% with credit guarantee of three years.
- Gorakhpur is on track to become a major garment manufacturing centre, boosting the economy in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The Gorakhpur Industrial Development Authority (GIDA) will provide four acres of land for construction of a flattened factory and will enable accessible to entrepreneurs.
- In March 2021, The Ministry of Textiles favoured limited deal for the India-UK free trade agreement that could boost the garments sector.
- In 2020-21, the UK is India's fourteenth largest trading partner, accounting for US$ 8.7 billion in exports and US$ 6.7 billion in imports.
- Under the proposed trade agreement, the Textile Ministry expects more market access for the Indian textiles and clothing sector in order to achieve its full potential.
- In March 2021, under the ongoing sub-mission on agroforestry (SMAF) scheme, the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Central Silk Board, under the Ministry of Textiles, on a convergence model to implement agroforestry in the silk sector.
- In March 2021, toys were identified as one of the 24 primary sectors listed under the self-reliant India initiative. The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) has developed a ‘National Action Plan’ for toys that calls on several central ministries, including textiles, MSME, I&B, Education, DPIIT (under the Ministry of Commerce) and other departments, to nurture and promote the industry.
- Effective 01 January 2021, to boost exports, government have extended the benefit of the Scheme for Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products (RoDTEP) to all exported goods
- To support the handloom and handicrafts sector, the government has taken steps to onboard weavers/artisans on Government e-Marketplace (GeM), provide a wider market and enable them to sell their products directly to various government departments and organisations. As of December 31, 2020, 171,167 weavers/artisans/handloom entities have been registered on the GeM portal.
- Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is helping the Indian textile industry to produce yarns and eliminate dependence on import of Chinese and other foreign clothing for military uniforms. Indian defense sector has expressed support towards the Indian technical textile sector.
- In March 2021, while addressing the 9th edition of TECHNOTEX 2021 organized by FICCI, General Bipin Rawat, Chief of Defence Staff appreciated the innovations in Indian technical textile and stated that the armed forces will rather reduce imports and instead procure technical textiles from Indian industries as a part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat initiative.
- In October 2020, the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by Mr. Narendra Modi approved mandatory packaging of 100% food grains and 20% sugar in jute bags. Under the Jute Packaging Materials (Compulsory Use in Packing Commodities) Act, 1987, the government is required to consider and provide for the compulsory use of jute packaging materials for supply.
- Government launched production linked incentive scheme to provide incentives for manufacture and export of specific textile products made of man-made fibre.
- On September 2, 2020, the Union Cabinet approved signing an MOU between textile committee, India and M/s Nissenken Quality Evaluation Centre, Japan, for improving quality and testing Indian textiles and clothing for the Japanese market. This India-Japan pact on cooperation in textiles will facilitate Indian exporters to meet the requirements of Japanese importers as per the latter’s technical regulations.
- Under Union Budget 2020-21, a National Technical Textiles Mission is proposed for a period from 2020-21 to 2023-24 at an estimated outlay of Rs. 1,480 crore (US$ 211.76 million).
- In 2020, New Textiles Policy 2020 is expected to be released by the Ministry of Textiles.
- The Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) has revised rates for incentives under the Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS) for two subsectors of Textiles Industry - readymade garments and made-ups - from 2% to 4%.
- The Government of India has taken several measures including Amended Technology Up-gradation Fund Scheme (A-TUFS), estimated to create employment for 35 lakh people and enable investment worth Rs. 95,000 crore (US$ 14.17 billion) by 2022.
- Integrated Wool Development Programme (IWDP) was approved by Government of India to provide support to the wool sector, starting from wool rearer to end consumer, with an aim to enhance quality and increase production during 2017-18 and 2019-20.
Following are the achievements of the Government in the past four years:
- In June 2021, KVIC recorded a 7.71% growth in gross annual turnover to Rs. 95,741.74 crore (US$ 12.85 billion) from Rs. 88,887 crore (US$ 11.93 billion) in FY20.
- In CY2020, Cotton Corporation of India made a record procurement of ~ 151 lakh bales under MSP operations, which is ~ 290% higher than 38.43 lakh bales procured during the corresponding period last year.
- I-ATUFS, a web-based claims monitoring and tracking mechanism was launched on April 21, 2016. 381 new block level clusters were sanctioned.
- Under the Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP), 59 textile parks were sanctioned, out of which, 22 have been completed.
- Employment increased to 45 million in FY19 from 8.03 in FY15.
- Exports of readymade garments (of all textiles) was worth US$ 1.19 billion as of December 2020.
India is working on major initiatives, to boost its technical textile industry. Owing to the pandemic, the demand for technical textiles in the form of PPE suits and equipment is on rise. Government is supporting the sector through funding and machinery sponsoring.
Top players in the sector are attaining sustainability in their products by manufacturing textiles that use natural recyclable materials.
The future for the Indian textiles industry looks promising, buoyed by strong domestic consumption as well as export demand. With consumerism and disposable income on the rise, the retail sector has experienced a rapid growth in the past decade with the entry of several international players like Marks & Spencer, Guess and Next into the Indian market.
High economic growth has resulted in higher disposable income. This has led to rise in demand for products creating a huge domestic market.
Note: Conversion rate used in August 2021, Rs. 1 = US$ 0.01344
References: Ministry of Textiles, Indian Textile Journal, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Press Information Bureau
Note: ^ - According to 4th Advanced Estimates, CY - Calendar Year
Disclaimer: This information has been collected through secondary research and IBEF is not responsible for any errors in the same.