Last updated: Jan, 2021
India has emerged as the fastest growing major economy in the world and is expected to be one of the top three economic powers in the world over the next 10-15 years, backed by its robust democracy and strong partnerships.
India’s GDP (at constant 2011-12 prices) was estimated at Rs. 33.14 trillion (US$ 452.74 billion) for the second quarter of FY2020-21, against Rs. 35.84 trillion (US$ 489.62 billion) in the second quarter of FY2019-20.
India is the fourth-largest unicorn base in the world with over 21 unicorns collectively valued at US$ 73.2 billion, as per the Hurun Global Unicorn List. By 2025, India is expected to have ~100 unicorns by 2025 and will create ~1.1 million direct jobs according to the Nasscom-Zinnov report ‘Indian Tech Start-up’.
India needs to increase its rate of employment growth and create 90 million non-farm jobs between 2023 and 2030's, for productivity and economic growth according to McKinsey Global Institute. Net employment rate needs to grow by 1.5% per year from 2023 to 2030 to achieve 8-8.5% GDP growth between 2023 and 2030.
India's foreign exchange reserves stood at US$ 581.131 billion in the week up to December 18, 2020 according to data from RBI.
With an improvement in the economic scenario, there have been investments across various sectors of the economy. In 2020, the total deal value in India stood at ~US$ 80 billion across 1,268 transactions. Of this, M&A activity contributed ~50% to the total transaction value. Private Equity–Venture Capital (PE-VC) companies expanded from US$ 36.3 billion (1,012 deals) in 2019 to US$ 39.2 billion (across 814 deals) in 2020. Some of the important recent developments in Indian economy are as follows:
The first Union Budget of the third decade of 21st century was presented by Minister for Finance & Corporate Affairs, Ms Nirmala Sitharaman in the Parliament on February 1, 2020. The budget aimed at energising the Indian economy through a combination of short-term, medium-term, and long-term measures.
In November 2020, the Government of India announced Rs. 2.65 lakh crore (US$ 36 billion) stimulus package to generate job opportunities and provide liquidity support to various sectors such as tourism, aviation, construction and housing. Also, India's cabinet approved the production-linked incentives (PLI) scheme to provide ~Rs. 2 trillion (US$ 27 billion) over five years to create jobs and boost production in the country.
Numerous foreign companies are setting up their facilities in India on account of various Government initiatives like Make in India and Digital India. Mr Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India, launched Make in India initiative with an aim to boost country’s manufacturing sector and increase purchasing power of an average Indian consumer, which would further drive demand and spur development, thus benefiting investors. The Government of India, under its Make in India initiative, is trying to boost the contribution made by the manufacturing sector with an aim to take it to 25% of the GDP from the current 17%. Besides, the Government has also come up with Digital India initiative, which focuses on three core components: creation of digital infrastructure, delivering services digitally and to increase the digital literacy.
Some of the recent initiatives and developments undertaken by the Government are listed below:
India's GDP is expected to reach US$ 5 trillion by FY25 and achieve upper-middle income status on the back of digitization, globalization, favorable demographics, and reforms.
India is also focusing on renewable sources to generate energy. It is planning to achieve 40% of its energy from non-fossil sources by 2030, which is currently 30%, and have plans to increase its renewable energy capacity from to 175 gigawatt (GW) by 2022.
India is expected to be the third largest consumer economy as its consumption may triple to US$ 4 trillion by 2025, owing to shift in consumer behavior and expenditure pattern, according to a Boston Consulting Group (BCG) report. It is estimated to surpass USA to become the second largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) by 2040 as per a report by PricewaterhouseCoopers.
Note: Conversion rate used for December 2020 is Rs. 1 = US$ 0.014