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Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY)

Brief Introduction of the Policy
On July 1, 2015, the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana) was launched to expand cultivated area with assured irrigation and reduce wastage of water in the country. The scheme focuses on creating sources-protective irrigation by harnessing rainwater at a micro level through ‘Jal Sanchay’ and ‘Jal Sinchan’. Micro irrigation is also incentivised through subsidies to ensure ‘Per Drop More Crop’.

Need for the Policy
Water or irrigation is the most essential part of agriculture as it determines crop yield and farmer livelihood. Prior to the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana, 54% of the agricultural land in India was unirrigated and farmers depended on rainwater (which is sporadic) for irrigation. Keeping this in mind, Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi launched the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana to solve irrigation problems of farmers in the country. The motive of the scheme is to take irrigation water to every agricultural field in the country.

Policy Details
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana has been formed by amalgamating ongoing schemes such as the Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP), River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) and On-farm Water Management (OFWM).

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana is supervised and monitored by an Inter-ministerial National Steering Committee (NSC), which was constituted under the Prime Minister and some Union Ministers. A National Executive Committee (NEC) was constituted under the Vice Chairman of NITI Aayog to oversee programme implementation, resource allocation, inter-ministerial coordination, monitoring & performance assessment, administrative issues, etc.

Objectives of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana includes the following:

  • Achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level (preparation of district-level and if required, subdistrict-level water use plans)
  • Enhance physical access of water on the farm and expand cultivable area under assured irrigation (Har Khet ko Pani)
  • Integrate water source, distribution and its efficient use to make the best use of water through appropriate technologies and practices
  • Optimise farm water use (and reduce wastage) and increase availability (duration and extent)
  • Enhance adoption of precision irrigation and other water-saving technologies (Per Drop More Crop)
  • Enhance recharging of aquifers and introduce sustainable water-conservation practices
  • Ensure integrated development of rainfed areas using the watershed approach towards conserving soil and water, regenerating ground water, arresting runoff, providing livelihood options and other NRM activities
  • Promote extension activities pertaining to water harvesting, water management and crop alignment for farmers and grassroot-level field functionaries
  • Explore the feasibility of reusing treated municipal wastewater for peri-urban agriculture
  • Attract more private investments in irrigation

Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP)

The AIBP was launched by the central government in 1996 to aid major and mid-sized irrigation projects in India. The objective was to accelerate implementation of projects beyond the resource capability of states or in the advanced stages of completion. After 2015, the AIBP became a part of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana. There are 99 projects under the programme with a total funding of Rs. 77,595 crore (US$ 10.35 billion).

Command Area Development & Water Management Programme (CAD&WM)

The main objective of the Command Area Development & Water Management Programme is to enhance utilisation of irrigation potential created and improve agriculture productivity and production on a sustainable basis through integrated and coordinated approach involving multidisciplinary teams. The programme has been restricted to the 99 projects prioritised under the AIBP.

Surface Minor Irrigation (SMI)

Surface Minor Irrigation (SMI) schemes with irrigation potential less than 2,000 hectares are included under the AIBP for providing central assistance. The scheme has been extended to an area covering drought-prone areas, flood-prone areas, left wing extremist and the Koraput, Bolangir and Kalahandi (KBK) region of Odisha.

Repair, Renovation & Restoration (RRR) Programme

In India, tanks, ponds and lakes play an important role in conserving water to meet the various needs of communities. The Ministry of Water Resources launched the Repair, Renovation & Restoration (RRR) scheme for water bodies in 2005. Under the programme, 3,341 water bodies have been covered at an estimated cost of Rs. 1,309.16 crore (US$ 174.69 million).

Har Khet ko Pani

The Har Khet ko Pani scheme includes creation of new water sources through minor irrigation repair, restoration and renovation of water bodies; strengthening of the carrying capacity of traditional water sources; construction of rainwater harvesting structures (Jal Sanchay); development of ground water; and improvement of the water management and distribution systems.

Per Drop More Crop

The Per Drop More Crop scheme includes promoting efficient water conveyance and precision water application devices such as drips, sprinklers, pivots and rain guns in farms, constructing micro irrigation structures to supplement source-creation activities including tube wells and dug wells, installing water lifting devices such as diesel/electric/solar pump sets, building capacity training and awareness campaigns including low-cost publications, empowering extension workers to disseminate relevant technologies under the PMKSY only after requisite training is provided to them, especially in the area of promotion of scientific moisture conservation and agronomic measures and information communication technology (ICT) interventions.

Watershed Development

Watershed development includes management of runoff water and improved soil and moisture- conservation activities such as ridge area treatment, drainage line five treatment, rainwater harvesting, in-situ moisture conservation and other allied activities on watershed basis.

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana – Key Developments

  • In October 2020, the Union Minister of State for Waterpower and Social Justice and Empowerment launched a mobile application including information about the work being done under the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Scheme.
  • In October 2020, the Assam state government launched the Kisan Rath (fruits & vegetables) mobile application to facilitate timely selling of agricultural products by promoting the buyer-seller network.

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana – Key Investments

  • In March 2021, the Maharashtra state government allocated Rs. 400 crore (US$ 53.37 million) for various irrigation development corporations for completing various irrigation projects under the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana and Baliraja Sanjeevani Yojana.
  • In February 2021, the Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare Ministry announced plan to spend half of the budget allocation of Rs. 131,531 crore (US$ 17.55 billion) on the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana for FY 2021-22.
  • In November 2020, the Union Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare approved subsidised loans worth Rs. 3,971.31 crore (US$ 529.93 million) for implementing micro-irrigation projects.
  • In June 2020, the Department of Agriculture Cooperation and Farmer’s Welfare announced an allotment of Rs. 4,000 crore (Rs. 533.76 million) to the state government to implement the ‘Per Drop More Crop’ component under the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana for FY 2020-21.

Conclusion
According to the recent Economic Survey 2019-20, micro-irrigation is a proven technology that has gained popularity among farmers in India. A stronger push and appropriate fund allocation towards the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana has helped the government realise a target coverage of 10 million hectares in the next five years. Additionally, the government has also set up an online portal for the entire process execution and visibility, encouraging more investments by prospective competitors.