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Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana

Introduction
The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) was launched in September 2020 with an aim to double the income of fish farmers and fishers in the country. It focuses on sustainable development of India’s fisheries sector and is a part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat scheme.

The scheme adopted a “cluster or area-based approach” to create fisheries clusters. The scheme focuses on activities with potential to generate employment such as seaweed and ornamental fish cultivation. It also emphasises on the breeding technique for quality brood, seed & feed and species diversification.

With implementation of the scheme, the government aims to help reduce post-harvest loss from 20–25% to 10%, double the incomes of fishers and fish farmers and generate an additional 55 lakhs direct and indirect employment opportunities.

In line with this, key targets of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana are as follows:

  • Increasing fish production from 13.75 million metric tons in 2018-19 to 22 million metric tons by 2024-25.
  • Improving aquaculture productivity from 3 tons per hectare to 5 tons per hectare.
  • Enhancing domestic fish consumption from 5 kg to 12 kg per capita.
  • Increasing contribution of the fisheries sector to the Agriculture GVA from 7.28% in 2018-19 to about 9% by 2024-25.
  • Doubling export revenue from Rs. 46,589 crore (US$ 6.37 billion) in 2018-19 to Rs. 100,000 crore (US$ 13.68 billion) by 2024-25.
  • Reducing post-harvest losses to about 10%.
  • Creating 55 lakh direct and indirect employment opportunities across the value chain.

Need for PM Matsya Sampada Yojana
Fisheries and aquaculture play an important role in food, nutrition, employment and income in India. The sector employs ~16 million fish farmers and fishers at the primary level and almost twice the number along the value chain. The fisheries sector accounted for 1.24% of the national GVA (gross value added) and 7.28% of agriculture GVA in 2018-19. As per the department of fisheries, marine fishing resources are estimated at 4.41 million tons and its activities extend along 8,118 kms of the country’s coastline. To improve fish production, it was important to conduct integrated fish farming and diversify fish production in areas such as old water, river and brackish water fishery.

To facilitate an enabling environment for comprehensive development of the full potential of the country’s fisheries, the government introduced the ‘Blue Revolution’ for a period of five years (2015-16 to 2019-20). The ‘Blue Revolution’ helped enhance local fish production from 10.26 MMT (million metric tonnes) in FY15 to 13.75 MMT in FY19. Fish productivity increased from 2.3 tonnes per hectare in FY15 to 3.3 tonnes per hectare in FY19.

Further, the fisheries sector has been a major contributor to foreign exchange earnings, with India being one of the world's leading seafood exporters. In FY19, marine products export earnings stood at Rs. 465.89 billion (US$ 6.73 billion), driven by rapid development of the brackish water aquaculture. In FY20, aquaculture products accounted for 70–75% of the country's total fishery exports.

Further development of the country’s fishery sector presents a great opportunity for fish farmers to generate more income, increase fish production and enhance exports and thereby, drive the country's economic growth.

In line with this, recognizing the huge potential in this sector, the Indian government launched PMMSY in September 2020 and allocated funds worth Rs. 20,050 crore (US$ 2.74 billion) for a period of five years (from FY21 to FY25) for overall development of the country’s fisheries.

Key Initiatives and Progress
The PM Matsya Sampada Yojana includes key activities such as fishing vessel insurance, support for new/upgrade of fishing vessels, aquaculture in saline/alkaline areas, Sagar Mitras, nucleus breeding centres, fisheries and aquaculture start-ups, incubators, and integrated aqua parks.

Implementation Strategy
The PMMSY has the Central Sector and Centrally-sponsored Scheme Components and hence, is being implemented as an umbrella scheme. The scheme is expected to intervene at almost all key components of the fisheries value chain to focus on all-round development of the fisheries sector.

To effectively implement the scheme and get optimal outcome, the implementation is done in collaboration with the states/union territories. While financing of the scheme differs by component and areas, the central government bears the whole cost in some key areas of national importance.

While improving fish production is the key objective of PMMSY, it is imperative to achieve quality, sustainability, standards and traceability in the fisheries sector. The scheme encourages private participation and development of entrepreneurial culture in the fisheries sector to achieve its end-objectives.

The scheme will also look for suitable linkages and convergence with various centre and state government schemes. A few of the identified schemes for linkages are “Sagarmala Project” of the Ministry of Shipping, PMKSY of the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, MGNREGS and the National Rural Livelihoods Mission of the Department of Rural Development, Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) and other schemes under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.

Funding Plan
PMMSY will be implemented with the following funding plan:

  • Central Sector Scheme – The entire scheme cost will be borne by the central govt. Also, in cases of direct beneficiary-oriented activities undertaken by central government entities such as the NFDB, central assistance will be up to 40% of the project cost for the general category and 60% for the SC/ST/women category.
  • Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) – In case of CSS components and subcomponents implemented by the states/UTs, the entire project cost will be shared between the centre and state.

 

Total

Centre Share

State Share

Beneficiary Share

(A) Central Sector Scheme

Rs. 1,720 crore
(US$ 235.24 million)

Rs. 1,720 crore

(US$ 235.24 million)

-

-

(B) Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS)

Rs. 18,330 crore
(US$ 2.51 billion)

Rs. 7,687 crore
(US$ 1.05 billion)

Rs. 4,880 crore
(US$ 667.42 million)

Rs. 5,763 crore
(US$ 788.18 million)

  1. Beneficiary- oriented activities

Rs. 11,990 crore
(US$ 1.64 billion)

Rs. 3,878 crore

(US$ 530.38 million)

Rs. 2,349 crore
(US$ 321.26 million)

 

  1. Non-beneficiary- oriented activities

Rs. 6,340 crore
(US$ 867.10 billion)

Rs. 3,809 crore
(US$ 520.94 million)

Rs. 2,531 crore
(US$ 346.16 million)

 

Total (A)+(B)

Rs. 20,050 crore
(US$ 2.74 billion)

Rs. 9,407 crore
(US$ 1.29 billion)

Rs. 4,880 crore
(US$ 667.42 million)

Rs. 5,763 crore
(US$ 788.18 million)

Key Developments

  • In FY20, institutes such as the Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical & Engineering Training (CIFNET) expanded its mission to train fishermen from the coastal states and union territories through a capacity building training programme under the PMMSY.
  • In March 2021, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University became the first Indian university to receive fishery project funds under the PMMSY worth Rs. 139.05 lakh (US$ 190.40 thousand) to promote low-density intensive aquaculture technologies in the region through integrated modules for research, demonstration and skills development, such as the circulating aquaculture system (RAS) and Biofloc aquaculture.
  • As part of other developments in the Indian fisheries sector, in April 2021, Manipur’s State Fisheries Minister, Mr. S. Rajen Singh, announced that fish farms maintained by the state government will be leased to interested fish farmers in a public-private partnership (PPP) model to provide employment and income opportunity in the state.

PM Matsya Sampada Yojana – the Progress So Far
As of January 2021, proposals with an outlay of Rs. 6,567.20 crore (US$ 898.17 million) were received from various states/UTs. Project proposals with a total outlay of Rs. 2,309.08 crore (US$ 315.80 million) have already been approved.

The PMMSY scheme is anticipated to have impacted ~800,000 employment and beneficiaries across the country.

The government proposed mega investments to strengthen fishing ports and landing centres for healthy fish management and reduction of post-harvest erosion, high cost, etc. The government allocated funds worth ~Rs. 7,700 crore (US$ 1.05 billion) on fisheries infrastructure such as deep-sea vessels and for building an integrated laboratory network for diagnostic and quality testing.

The Road Ahead…
Looking forward, the government has set the target to double its fishery export earnings to Rs. 100,000 crore (US$ 13.68 billion) by FY25, from Rs. 46,589 crore (US$ 6.37 billion) in FY19.

The government is taking significant measures to make the PMMSY scheme a success. In the Union Budget 2021-22, the government allocated funds worth Rs. 1,220.84 crore (US$ 166.97 million) to the Department of Fisheries, an increase of 34% YoY. Of the total allocation, funds worth Rs. 1,000 crore (US$ 136.77 million) was awarded to the PMMSY scheme for FY22, an increase of 43% YoY. This will further contribute to the advancement of fishermen's livelihood in the country.

Under the PMMSY, the government has helped develop a Fish Brood Bank and an Aquatic Disease Referral Laboratory in select states (e.g., Bihar) to boost fish production and quality by ensuring proper availability of high-quality, low-cost fish seed for fish farmers as well as addressing the need for disease detection and water & soil testing.

The government is also focusing on adopting technologies such as the IoT to integrate with the PMMSY to better facilitate development of the fisheries sector as well as its auxiliary industries and help bring fishermen into the mainstream industry—making them economically stable and secure.