INDIA ADDA – Perspectives On India

IBEF works with a network of stakeholders - domestic and international - to promote Brand India.



Dikshu C. Kukreja
Dikshu C. Kukreja
Mr. V. Raman Kumar
Mr. V. Raman Kumar
Ms. Chandra Ganjoo
Ms. Chandra Ganjoo
Sanjay Bhatia
Sanjay Bhatia
Aprameya Radhakrishna
Aprameya Radhakrishna
Colin Shah
Colin Shah
Shri P.R. Aqeel Ahmed
Shri P.R. Aqeel Ahmed
Dr. Vidya Yeravdekar
Dr. Vidya Yeravdekar
Alok Kirloskar
Alok Kirloskar
Pragati Khare
Pragati Khare
Devang Mody
Devang Mody
Vinay Kalantri
Vinay Kalantri

Animal Vaccine Opportunity in India

Animal Vaccine Opportunity in India

India has developed as a global vaccination and pharmaceutical centre. The country benefits from a trained, technically sound resource pool, as well as an infrastructural foundation that could be applied to the animal vaccine market. Furthermore, India has a booming livestock population and ranks first in overall livestock population, total bovine production, cattle population, and buffalo population. According to the latest 20th Livestock Census 2020, India's total livestock population is 535 million. In terms of value and volume, the Indian animal healthcare (AH) market makes up 2.5% of the global animal healthcare market. Overall, the Indian animal healthcare industry is forecast to be worth roughly US$ 670.78 million (Rs. 5,500 crore) in 2020 and is expected to be worth around US$ 731.76 million (Rs. 6,000 crore) by 2021.

According to species, the AH market is created by 51% livestock 35% poultry, 8% companion animals, 5% Aqua, and 1% for other animals. In India, the most popular vaccines are for Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), which protects against viral goat plague, the Brucella vaccine, which protects against Brucellosis, and the FMD vaccine, which protects against Foot and mouth disease (FMD). The sector's expansion is being driven by increased demand for animals and their related products (eggs, dairy, meat), as well as rising desire for companion animals. This trend, combined with the increasing prevalence of animal diseases, leads to a robust growth prediction for animal vaccinations in the country. Furthermore, the government has taken a proactive approach to animal health, launching a range of initiatives under the 'National Animal Disease Control Programme,' which has contributed to expanding opportunities.

Animal Vaccine Industry

Under central government initiatives like "One Health," where an intersectoral approach is taken for tackling the most urgent health threats in India as well as in low- and middle-income countries across South and Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa°, there has also been an increased focus on studying the connections between animals, the environment, and human health. The Veterinary Cell of CDSCO (Central Drug Standard Control Organisation) regulates animal health goods in India. The Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying is in charge of the technical review required for product registration of farm and companion animals, whereas the Department of Fisheries is in charge of aqua products. Biologicals are researched and assessed by the Indian Institute of Veterinary Science (IVRI).

Growth Drivers

  • Rising Prevalence of Zoonotic diseases

According to a UN report, the prevalence of zoonotic disease is increasing globally, with 75% of developing infectious diseases being zoonotic." This is due to factors such as increased worldwide demand for animal protein, an increase in intensive and unsustainable farming practises, wildlife exploitation, poor natural resource utilisation, and population expansion. In India, expanding population fuels increasing urbanisation, making India vulnerable to one of the world's greatest zoonotic disease burdens.

  • Growth in the Livestock Population

The female cattle population has increased by 18% from the previous census (2012) and now stands at 145.12 million. Rising fecundity, increased consolidation of animal farms, and increased herd size of dairy farms are all significant reasons.

  • Rising Demand for Animal Products like Eggs, Meat and Dairy Products

India currently has a milk production capacity of 198 million tonnes, which is predicted to expand to 330 million tonnes by 2024. Egg production in the country has increased by more than 30% since 2014, owing to rising demand and increased purchasing power. The Indian poultry market has seen an upward trend over the last five years and is expanding at a rate of 12–15% annually. Currently, urban markets supply around 80% of demand. Factors such as decreasing chicken prices, improved wealth, and changing lifestyles indicate that rural demand will increase, with the industry growing at an annual pace of 8-10%.

  • Rising Pet Healthcare Market

According to industry forecasts, the Indian pet care market would increase at a CAGR of more than 20% by 2021-22. This is fueled by rising disposable incomes, changing lifestyles, increased awareness, and a surge in households with two incomes and delayed parenthood. The common diseases against which pets can receive vaccinations include kennel cough, parvovirus, leptospirosis, infectious canine hepatitis, and rabies.

  • Growing R&D Spending for Drug and Vaccine Development

The pharmaceutical segment of the animal healthcare market is expected to develop at a 5.4% annual rate until 2027. Rising zoonotic disease incidence, increased feed output, and increased consumer knowledge about animal welfare are some of the primary drivers driving the demand for pharmaceuticals.

List of Animal Vaccines in India




Name of the Vaccine



Anathrax spore Vaccine, Black Quarter (BQ) Vaccine, Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) Vaccine, Brucella Abortus vaccine, Foot, and Mouth Disease (FMD) Vaccine, Buffallopox Vaccine, Johne’s Disease Vaccine



Classical swine fever (CSF) Vaccine



Equine Herpesvirus-1 Vaccine, Equine Influenza Vaccine, Camelpox Vaccine


Sheep and Goats

Sheeppox Vaccine, Enterotoxaemia Vaccine, PPR vaccine, Goatpox Vaccine, Bluetongue, Orf Vaccine



Newcastle Disease/Ranikhet Disease Vaccine, Fowlpox Disease Vaccine, Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine

 Source: Invest India

Covid Vaccine for Animals

According to ICAR, the inactivated Ancovax vaccine is safe for use in dogs, lions, leopards, mice, and rabbits in order to protect against the COVID-19 virus. The vaccine contains an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (Delta) antigen as well as Alhydrogel as an adjuvant. It is capable of neutralising both Delta and Omicron forms. This vaccine was developed by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Research Centre on Equines (ICAR-NRCE) and is one of six vaccines manufactured by the Indian Institute. Ancovax, a first for India, is the only vaccination capable of neutralising the COVID-19 virus in animals. Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers' Welfare Mr. Narendra Singh Tomar also released the CAN-CoV-2 ELISA Kit (detects COVID in canines), the Surra ELISA Kit (detects Trypanosoma evansi infection in animals), and the Equine DNA Parentage Testing Kit (determining parentage in horses and other equines).

Opportunity in Animal Vaccine Industry

  • Thermotolerant Vaccines

Cold storage is a problem in India's remote areas, villages, and towns. As a result, thermotolerant vaccines have a high potential to assure optimal efficacy and quality while addressing India's cold chain problems for vaccines.

  • Supply Chain & Logistics

Given the increasing need and demand for animal vaccinations, a strong supply chain, including transportation and cold storage, is required. This is a rapidly increasing part of the animal vaccination market.

  • Veterinary Hospitals and Clinics

Animal healthcare institutions and clinics remain few in comparison to expanding demand. The current infrastructure must be upgraded, and new facilities ranging from veterinary pharmacies to mobile clinics must be established.

  • Vaccine and Antigen Banks

Antigen and vaccine banks are collections of immunogenic materials that are ready to be manufactured into vaccines (bulk antigens) or used (vaccines) in the event of an emergency. Such institutions can aid in crisis preparedness, which has been highlighted in the aftermath of the global COVID-19 outbreak.

Government Initiatives


  • Livestock Health and Disease Control (LH&DC) Scheme

    The initiative was started with the overarching objective of eliminating PPR and controlling CSF worldwide by providing financial support to State Implementing Agencies.

    • Assistance to States for Control of Animal Disease (ASCAD)

    The program's main components are immunisation, the improvement of the State Veterinary Biological Production Units and the infrastructure of the Disease Diagnostic Laboratories, as well as in-service training for veterinarians and para-veterinarians. Assistance is provided to state/union territory governments for the control of economically important and zoonotic livestock and poultry diseases.

    • Peste des Petits Ruminants Control Programme (PPR-CP)

    The plan is currently being implemented throughout the country by vaccinating all susceptible sheep and goats, for which central financial help is provided for immunisation and observation for a period of four years.

    • Establishment and strengthening of existing Veterinary Hospitals and Dispensaries (ESVHD)

    The Central Government fully funds one-time expenses and halves recurrent expenses 60:40 with the different state governments.

    • Classical Swine Fever Control Programme (CSF-CP)

    Immunisation of pigs in all states and UTs.

    • National Project on Rinderpest Surveillance and Monitoring (NPRSM)

     Assistance is provided to increase surveillance in order to sustain the country's freedom from Rinderpest and Contagious Bovine Pleuro-Pneumonia (CBPP) infections, which were achieved in May 2006 and May 2007, respectively.

    • Professional Efficiency Development (PED)

    State Veterinary Councils and the Veterinary Council of India (VCI) are assisted in carrying out their statutory activities under the Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984, as well as in carrying out Continuous Veterinary Education (CVE) for in-service veterinarians.

  • National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP)

    It is a flagship programme with an outlay of US$ 2 billion, that aims to eradicate Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Brucellosis. From 2019 to 24, the initiative seeks to vaccinate 100% of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, and pig populations for FMD, as well as 100% of bovine female calves aged 4 to 8 months. Major initiatives under the NADCP for Brucellosis and foot-and-mouth disease are as follows:

    • Vaccinating the whole exposed population of bovine small ruminants (sheep and goats) and pigs at six-month intervals (mass vaccination against FMD). 
    • Primary immunisation of bovine calves (age 4-5 months).
    • Campaigns for public awareness and publicity at the national, state, block, and village levels
    • Animal health cards are used to keep a record of vaccinations.
    • Serosurveillance/seromonitoring of animal populations.
    • Data collection and continuous monitoring, including evaluation of the program's impact.

FMD Vaccination

Brucella Vaccination

Target Population


vaccinated in

Round I

Animals vaccinated in Round II till Feb 2023

Target Population

Animals vaccinated till Feb 2023






 Source: Lok Sabha Documents

  • Program on Bovine Tuberculosis

The Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) Network programme is still being carried out by DBT. The programme was co-funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and DBT and was implemented at eight university and national institutes including almost 80 Principal Investigators (Pis), Co-Pls, and research scholars. The network programme focuses not only on bTB surveillance for bTB prevalence, but also on bTB control through BCG vaccination, repository construction, and training of new scientists.

  • Establishment of a Consortium for One Health to Address Zoonotic and Transboundary Diseases in India

DBT established the consortium with the following objectives:

  • Increasing the availability of state- and national-level data on certain zoonotic illnesses and transboundary animal diseases (TADS).
  • Validation of indigenous tests for use in the field.
  • Collection of useful reference (positive and negative) sera banks.
  • Platform development, such as a monoclonal antibody facility and the creation of experimental animal models.
  • Establishment of a network of veterinary clinics, medical clinics, and laboratories.
  • Starting to invest towards pathogen border security.
  • Developing an approach for India's One Health programme.

  • Bovine Tuberculosis Control- Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals' Network (MyDAN) Programme

DBT launched the MyDAN project with seven network centres to assess the prevalence of tuberculosis across the spectrum, assess the efficacy of BCG in disease prevention, and build India's national TB control programme for livestock.

  • Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB) at TANUVAS, Chennai

The DBT-TANUVAS cooperation programme was launched in September 2011 at the Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS) in Chennai. This platform aids translation research by completing product development, validation, regulatory paperwork, and product commercialization. As of now, TRVB has had great success with the development of a number of products, including the commercialization of a vaccine for the canine parvo virus (CPV)' TRPVB also has a cGMP-licensed manufacturing facility, a clean room, and a BSL-2 level laboratory facility, as well as many industry skilling programmes.

  • Brucellosis Network Programme

Since 2012, DBT has been operating and sponsoring its network initiative on Brucellosis, which was launched to address this epidemic and to produce a new generation of vaccines and diagnostic kits. One notable success story is the creation of a modified B. abortus S19 vaccine candidate. This was created at the ICAR- Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI). Hester Biosciences received the licence in 2020.

  • A Classical Swine Fever (CSF) Network

DBT initiated this to establish a national repository, organise regional CSF referral laboratories, study molecular epidemiology, and other goals. One national and five referral laboratories have already been created under this network.

Road Ahead

The sector has experienced a change towards increasing livestock productivity, with a greater focus being placed on the need for animal vaccinations not just for disease production, but also for disease prevention, with the goal of increasing farmer revenue through livestock rearing. Thus, the country's animal health business will continue to grow as a result of a variety of government schemes and efforts, as well as the increasing speed of innovation by the private sector to fill gaps in the value chain. Indeed, the spectacular advancements seen in the human vaccine market post-COVID have produced an ideal blueprint for the animal vaccine sector to replicate.