India’s Growing Logistics Sector
Logistics is essential for the economy of a country. It pertains to the general method of controlling how resources are obtained, housed and delivered to their ultimate location. Determining the efficiency and accessibility of potential distributors and suppliers is part of logistics management. It is a differentiating sector that can largely affect any country’s exports, thereby adding a significant competitive edge, with the underlying assumption of a robust logistics sector. The logistics industry comprises all supply chain activities, mainly transportation, inventory management, flow of information and customer service. It determines the success of not only the country’s supply chain but also influences it on a global scale. The effectiveness of logistics helps to determine the degree of ability that enterprises can keep up with demand.
Overview of India’s Logistics Sector
India’s logistics are estimated to account for about 14.4% of GDP. More than 22 million people rely on it for their income. The Department of Commerce's logistics division for India was established on 7th July 2017 and was given the responsibility of the Integrated Development of Logistics Sector. The Special Secretary to the Government of India is at the helm of the division and has been assigned the responsibility for the development of an action plan to facilitate the overall development of the logistics sector through policy changes, procedure improvements, identification of bottlenecks and gaps, and adoption of technology. Overall, India’s logistics sector consists of 37 export promotion councils, 40 Participating Government Agencies (PGAs), 20 government agencies, 10,000 commodities and 500 certifications.
In 2019, the Indian logistics sector was valued at Rs. 15.1 lakh crore (US$ 190 billion). The unorganised sector amounts to 99% of the logistics sector that includes owners of less than five trucks, brokers or transport companies' affiliates, small-scale warehouse owners, customs brokers and freight forwarders, among others. The global indices reflect the progress and developments in trade-related logistics over the years. The development of the logistics sector is also reflected by the fact that India scored 90.3% in the United UNESCAP’s Global Survey on Digital and Sustainable Trade Facilitation conducted in 2021, which is an exceptional improvement from the score it secured in 2019 of 78.5%, brought about by gains in the scores of five important indicators. The score has shown a consistent improvement, with scores of 63.4% and 67.7% secured in 2015 and 2017, respectively.
LEADS 2021 Overall State-wise Rankings (Top 10)
Source: Ministry of Commerce and Industry
Government’s Role Towards the Development of the Logistics Sector
The government has initiated various steps to boost the logistics sector, such as follows:
- National Logistics Policy: The government has planned to release the National Logistics Policy. The planning of the strategy involved detailed conversations on the supply and demand sides with all central ministries and takes a broad view of the sectors defining precise action points. The proposed policy's objective is to boost the nation's economy and corporate competitiveness by establishing an integrated, seamless, effective, dependable, green, sustainable and cost-efficient logistics network that makes use of best-in-class tools, procedures and qualified personnel. The policy aims to reduce the logistics cost, which stands at 14% of GDP to 9-10%. The strategy will establish a single-window e-logistics market and emphasize developing skills, competitiveness and employment for MSMEs.
- National Logistics Law: A national logistics law has been drafted and is under consultation. Through a unified legal framework for the paradigm of One Nation, One Contract, it would support the One Nation, One Market objective and provide a flexible regulatory environment (single bill of lading across modes). The law's provisions will make it possible to assign a distinct logistics account number in place of cumbersome registration processes.
- Logistics Master Plan: This initiative is in the works which takes a geographical strategy as opposed to an industry approach. Several projects and activities will be integrated into the plan to expand the mix of intermodal and/or multimodal transportation. Coordinated construction of relevant infrastructure (gas and utility pipelines, optical fibre cable networks) is planned to prevent problems in the future. An Inter-Ministerial Committee will be used to supervise the master plan's execution. The state and local logistics strategies will be created in coordination and cooperation with the federal plans.
- National Multimodal Facilities and Warehousing: In order to promote intermodal and Multimodal Logistics Parks (MMLPs) as a separate class of infrastructure and to encourage efforts with a national registry of multimodal facilities to enable price discovery, ensure optimal utilisation, and support planned development, the National Grid of Logistics Parks and Terminals is being planned. Furthermore, the government has begun to devise certain standards and guidelines that will be implemented for the development of warehousing. The government plans to optimise procedures for obtaining clearances that make the procedure of establishing warehouses more efficient, along with setting up a system for rating and certifying those warehouses for excellence.
- The Logistics division has designed a digitisation initiative to provide an integrated IT foundation that would boost productivity, reduce wasteful travel and provide a slick user experience. The standards for the National Logistics Platform (iLOG) are currently being finalised in conjunction with the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEiTY). The iLOG will work to integrate a single platform for the various IT solutions that have been developed by various stakeholders, including logistics service providers, purchasers, and central and state government agencies such as customs, Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT), railways, ports, airports, inland waterways and coastal shipping.
- National Logistics Workforce Strategy: For the integrated skill development of professionals in the logistics sector, the government is developing a national logistics workforce strategy. Building on the framework of skill development centres already in place, which are currently based on modes of transportation, it is planned to enable cross-sectoral exchange of ideas and best practices as well as create a workforce of professionals who will be the primary force behind the development of logistics in the nation. The approaches include a coordinated effort to analyse and address present and future skill needs, mainstreaming logistics education and training in regular formal education from school through post-graduate level, and introduction of a Certified Logistics Professional (CLP) scheme, and to incentivise the engagement of such professionals. The Driver Employment and Empowerment Programme is one of the strategies, and it aims to lower logistics costs by making truck driving a desired career due to the severe scarcity of truck drivers.
The initiatives taken by the government will lead to the progress of the logistics sector. The integration in the form of a multi modal network of transport and warehousing will lead to increased efficiency in the transportation and storage of goods throughout the country. By focusing on the digital aspect, the government’s aim is to upgrade the existing system that will lead to faster, better communication with fewer errors that will benefit the sector significantly. The plan has a strong monitor system with periodic audits in order to check the implementation of policies and application of required corrective measures. With the aforementioned initiatives, India intends to raise its ranking in the Logistics Performance Index to 25 and cut bring down the logistics cost from 13% to 8% of GDP, leading to a reduction of approximately 40%, within the next five years. These goals were set by the National Logistics Policy. This would guarantee the logistics industry acts as a growth engine and a major factor in upgrading India to a US$ 5 trillion economy.