India is the largest provider of generic drugs globally. Indian pharmaceutical sector supplies over 50% of global demand for various vaccines, 40% of generic demand in the US and 25% of all medicine in the UK.
India enjoys an important position in the global pharmaceuticals sector. The country also has a large pool of scientists and engineers with a potential to steer the industry ahead to greater heights. Presently, over 80% of the antiretroviral drugs used globally to combat AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) are supplied by Indian pharmaceutical firms.
Indian pharmaceutical sector is expected to grow to US$ 100 billion, while medical device market is expected to grow US$ 25 billion by 2025. Pharmaceuticals export from India stood at US$ 16.3 billion in FY20. Pharmaceutical export includes bulk drugs, intermediates, drug formulations, biologicals, Ayush and herbal products and surgical. As of November 2020, India exported pharmaceuticals worth US$ 15.86 billion in FY21. Pharmaceutical exports from India stood at US$ 16.28 billion in FY20 and US$ 2.07 billion in October 2020.
India's biotechnology industry comprising biopharmaceuticals, bio-services, bio-agriculture, bio-industry, and bioinformatics. The Indian biotechnology industry was valued at US$ 64 billion in 2019 and is expected to reach US$ 150 billion by 2025.
India’s domestic pharmaceutical market turnover reached Rs 1.4 lakh crore (US$ 20.03 billion) in 2019, up 9.8% y-o-y from Rs 129,015 crore (US$ 18.12 billion) in 2018.
Investments and Recent Developments
The Union Cabinet has given its nod for the amendment of existing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy in the pharmaceutical sector in order to allow FDI up to 100% under the automatic route for manufacturing of medical devices subject to certain conditions.
The drugs and pharmaceuticals sector attracted cumulative FDI inflow worth US$ 16.86 billion between April 2000 and September 2020 according to the data released by Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).
Some of the recent developments/investments in the Indian pharmaceutical sector are as follows:
- In December 2020, Piramal Pharma Solutions announced plans to invest Rs. 235 crore (US$ 32 million) to expand its facility in Michigan, US, with additional capacity and new capabilities for development and manufacturing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).
- In November 2020, Indian Immunologicals (IIL) commenced work on Rs. 75 crore (US$ 10.17 million) viral antigen manufacturing facility in Genome Valley, Telangana, that will enhance its vaccine production capacity by 35% by October 2021.
- In November 2020, the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay has stepped up research and development (R&D) amid COVID-19 and researchers are developing products such as a portable sterilisation device and germicidal cabinet; wheeled sterilisation unit, especially for hospitals; portable and rechargeable car sanitiser; eco-friendly sprays, and alcohol-free and bleach-free sanitisers.
- In October 2020, six generic drug makers--Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Zydus Cadila, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals, Torrent Pharmaceuticals, Hetero Drugs and Ackerman Pharma signed a deal with Hidalgo ,a state in Mexico, to establish a large pharmaceutical cluster for production and logistics in Mexico.
- In October 2020, Aurobindo Pharma acquired MViyeS Pharma Ventures for Rs. 274.22 crore (US$ 37.30 million).
- In May 2020, Jubilant Generics Ltd entered into a non-exclusive licencing agreement with US-based Gilead Sciences Inc to manufacture and sell the potential COVID-19 drug Remdesivir in 127 countries, including India.
- Affordable medicines under Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) achieved record sales turnover of Rs 52 crore (US$ 7.38 million) in the month of April 2020.
- During December 2019, on moving annual total (MAT) basis, industry growth was at 9.8%, with price growth at 5.3%, new product growth at 2.7%, while volume growth at 2% y-o-y.
- In October 2019, Telangana Government proposed Hyderabad Pharma City with financial assistance from the Central government of Rs 3,418 crore (US$ 489 million).
Some of the initiatives taken by the Government to promote the pharmaceutical sector in India are as follows:
- In November 2020, Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi dedicated two future-ready national premier Ayurveda institutions to the country to mark celebrations of the ‘5th Ayurveda Day’. Also, World Health Organisation (WHO) announced the setting up of the Global Centre of Traditional Medicine in India.
- On October 15, 2020, India and the Netherlands unveiled plans to collaborate with an aim to provide digital health facilities and security to all citizens. Part of India's National Digital Health Mission (NDHM), through this cooperative initiative, the two countries will work closely to create capacities and put in place the requisite technology to enable this initiative.
- From April 2020 to September 2020, health insurance became the most valuable segment for non-life insurers in terms of premiums collected, leapfrogging in motor insurance.
- In September 2020, the government announced production linked incentive (PLI) scheme for the pharmaceutical industry worth Rs. 15,000 crore (US$ 2.04 billion).
- India plans to set up a nearly Rs. 1 lakh crore (US$ 1.3 billion) fund to provide boost to companies to manufacture pharmaceutical ingredients domestically by 2023.
- In November 2019, the Cabinet approved extension/renewal of extant Pharmaceuticals Purchase Policy (PPP) with the same terms and conditions while adding one additional product namely, Alcoholic Hand Disinfectant (AHD) to the existing list of 103 medicines till the final closure/strategic disinvestment of Pharma CPSUs.
- Under Budget 2020-21, Rs. 65,012 crore (US$ 9.30 billion) has been allocated to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is. The Government has allocated Rs. 34,115 crore (US$ 4.88 billion) towards the National Health Mission under which rural and urban people will get benefited.
- Rs. 6,400 crore (US$ 915.72 million) has been allocated to health insurance scheme Ayushman Bharat - Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY).
- As per Economic Survey 2019-20, Government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) increased to 1.6% in FY20 from 1.2% in FY15 on health.
- The National Health Protection Scheme is the largest Government funded healthcare programme in the world, which is expected to benefit 100 million poor families in the country by providing a cover of up to Rs. 5 lakh (US$ 7,723.2) per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalisation. The programme was announced in Union Budget 2018-19.
- The Government of India is planning to set up an electronic platform to regulate online pharmacies under a new policy to stop any misuse due to easy availability.
- Government of India unveiled 'Pharma Vision 2020' to make India a global leader in end-to-end drug manufacture. Approval time for new facilities has been reduced to boost investment.
- Government of India has offered Rs. 6,940 crore (US$ 942.8 million) production linked incentives between 5-20% for incremental sales and plans to set up three mega drug parks to drive sustainable cost competitiveness.
Medicine spending in India is projected to grow 9 12% over the next five years, leading India to become one of the top 10 countries in terms of medicine spending.
Going forward, better growth in domestic sales would also depend on the ability of companies to align their product portfolio towards chronic therapies for diseases such as such as cardiovascular, anti-diabetes, anti-depressants and anti-cancers, which are on the rise.
The Indian Government has taken many steps to reduce costs and bring down healthcare expenses. Speedy introduction of generic drugs into the market has remained in focus and is expected to benefit the Indian pharmaceutical companies. In addition, the thrust on rural health programmes, lifesaving drugs and preventive vaccines also augurs well for the pharmaceutical companies.
Note: Conversion rate used in December 2020, Rs. 1 = US$ 0.01357
References: Consolidated FDI Policy, Press Information Bureau (PIB), Media Reports, Pharmaceuticals Export Promotion Council, AIOCD-AWACS, IQVIA
Disclaimer: This information has been collected through secondary research and IBEF is not responsible for any errors in the same.