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Last Updated: August 31, 2016
President, Carnegie Mellon University
Latest update: July, 2016
•In recent years, the Indian Government has implemented several fellowship schemes to nurture human capacity for advanced research in the country
•Following the Government’s initiatives, the number of researchers per million people has gone up from 140 during 2004–06 to 160 in 2010
•The period between 2010-20E has been declared as the “Decade of Innovation” by the nation
Last Updated: July, 2016
SECTORAL REPORT | January, 2016
India ranks third among the most attractive investment destinations for technology transactions in the world$. Modern India has had a strong focus on science and technology, realising that it is a key element of economic growth. India is among the topmost countries in the world in the field of scientific research, positioned as one of the top five nations in the field of space exploration. The country has regularly undertaken space missions, including missions to the moon and the famed Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). On 16 October 2014, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)’s PSLV-C26 successfully launched IRNSS-1C, the third satellite in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. This is PSLV’s 27th consecutive successful mission.
Currently@, 27 satellites including 11 that facilitate the communication network to the country are operational, establishing India’s progress in the space technology domain. India is likely to take a leading role in launching satellites for the SAARC nations, generating revenue by offering its space facilities for use to other countries.
There has been considerable emphasis on encouraging scientific temperament among India’s youth through numerous technical universities and institutes, both in the private and government sectors. As of June 2016, the country had a total of 17 Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), 31 National Institutes of Technology (NITs), 665# universities with 11,443 institutions as well as 35,829 colleges, and about 43 research laboratories run by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
India is among the world’s top 10 nations in the number of scientific publications. Position-wise, it is ranked 17th in the number of citations received and 34th in the number of citations per paper across the field of science and technology (among nations publishing 50,000 or more papers). The country is ranked ninth globally in the number of scientific publications and 12th in the number of patents filed.
India's analytics industry is expected to touch US$ 16 billion by 2025 from the current US$ 2 billion##.
With support from the government, considerable investment and development has incurred in different sectors such as agriculture, healthcare, space research, and nuclear power through scientific research. For instance, India is gradually becoming self-reliant in nuclear technology. Recently, the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project Unit-1 (KKNPP 1) with 1,000 MW capacity was commissioned, while the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project Unit-2 (KKNPP-2) with 1,000 MW capacity is under commissioning.
Some of the recent developments in the field of science and technology in India are as follows
The Government aims to invest 2 per cent of the country’s GDP on research and development (R&D) in its 12th Five-Year Plan period (2013–17). Accordingly, the Government has undertaken various measures for promoting growth of scientific research, such as:
Dr Harsh Vardhan, Minister for Science and Technology and Earth Sciences, outlined Government of India's plans to pursue a green path to growth by doubling investment in clean energy research to US$ 145 million in the next five years between 2017-2021 from current investment of US$ 72 million.
The Department of Health Research (DHR), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare plans to set up a three-tier national network of Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratories (VRDLs) under which 160 VRDLs will be set up with capability to handle around 30-35 viruses of public health importance.
The Government of India plans to set up 15 new technology centres and upgrade two existing ones for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) by 2017, which can cater to the needs of nearby industries and work as cluster development centres for industries located in their area.
The central government plans to soon institute a nation-wide consultation process with a view to develop the first publicly accessible Science and Technology policy. The policy ‘Vision S&T 2020’ would articulate the country’s future towards self-reliance and technological independence in the 21st century.
The Union Cabinet gave "in principle" clearance for the location of a Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) facility in India which will be the third in the world and will be set up and managed by the IndIGO Consortium (Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations).
The Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology of the Government of India has become only the second country outside of Europe to join the European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO), which consists of 1,700 eminent scientists and 84 Nobel laureates, and aims to encourage research in the field of life sciences.
The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) under Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and North East Centre for Technology Application and Research (NECTAR) to use spatial technology such as satellite data to monitor and manage national highways.
With an ambition to turn India into a world-class centre for genomics, a total of Rs44.7 billion (US$ 662.63 million) has been allocated to the Department of Science and Technology in the Union budget 2016-17.
The Department of Information and Technology plans to create a separate online portal for inviting ideas from technology innovators, with the objective to provide them with assistance including finance (bankrolling), and thus help to boost initiatives like Startup India and Digital India.
Ms Nirmala Sitharaman, Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Commerce and Industry, has launched the Technology Acquisition and Development Fund (TADF) under the National Manufacturing Policy (NMP) to facilitate acquisition of Clean, Green and Energy Efficient Technologies, by Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
National Council of Science Museums (NCSM), an autonomous organisation under the Union Ministry of Culture, is engaged in the establishment of Science Centres across the country. NCSM is developing a Science City at Guwahati, Assam, which would be handed over to the Government of Assam for future operations and maintenance. The organisation has received proposals from various state governments for setting up of such Science Cities. NCSM has undertaken the Science Centres/Cities projects in a phased manner depending on the availability of resources, project handling capacity of NCSM, and existing level of science centre activities in a particular state.
In the Union Budget 2015–16, the following initiatives have been taken in the field of science and technology:
India is aggressively working towards establishing itself as a leader in industrialisation and technological development. Significant developments in the nuclear energy sector are likely as India looks to expand its nuclear capacity. Moreover, nanotechnology is expected to transform the Indian pharmaceutical industry. The agriculture sector is also likely to undergo a major revamp, with the government investing heavily for the technology-driven Green Revolution. The Government of India, through the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy-2013, among other things, aspires to position India among the world’s top five scientific powers.
Exchange Rate Used: INR 1 = US$ 0.0148 as on July 11, 2016
References – Media reports, Press Releases, Press Information Bureau (PIB), Union Budget 2016-17
Notes - @ - As per information provided in Lok Sabha, # - In 2012-13, as per Ministry of Human Resources and Development Annual Report 2015, $- as per Ernst & Young's (EYs) Global Capital Confidence Barometer (CCB) - Technology report, * - as per The Times Higher Education of London, ## - as per the National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM)
Disclaimer: This information has been collected through secondary research and IBEF is not responsible for any errors in the same.
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