Indian renewable energy sector is the fourth most attractive renewable energy market in the world1. India was ranked fourth in wind power, fifth in solar power and fourth in renewable power installed capacity, as of 2020.
Installed renewable power generation capacity has gained pace over the past few years, posting a CAGR of 17.33% between FY16-20. With the increased support of Government and improved economics, the sector has become attractive from investors perspective. As India looks to meet its energy demand on its own, which is expected to reach 15,820 TWh by 2040, renewable energy is set to play an important role. The government is aiming to achieve 227 GW of renewable energy capacity (including 114 GW of solar capacity addition and 67 GW of wind power capacity) by 2022, more than its 175 GW target as per the Paris Agreement. The government plans to establish renewable energy capacity of 523 GW (including 73 GW from Hydro) by 2030.
As of July 2021, India had 96.96 GW of renewable energy capacity, and represents 25.2% of the overall installed power capacity, providing a great opportunity for the expansion of green data centres.
The country is targeting about 450 Gigawatt (GW) of installed renewable energy capacity by 2030 – about 280 GW (over 60%) is expected from solar.
Installed renewable power-generation capacity has increased at a fast pace over the past few years, posting a CAGR of 15.51% between FY16 and FY21. India had 94.4 GW of renewable energy capacity in FY21.
In July 2021, installed capacity of hydro projects in India reached to 46.3 GW, while capacity of small hydro plants reached to 4.8 GW.
By December 2019, 15,100 megawatts (MW) of wind power projects were issued, of which, projects of 12,162.50 MW capacity have already been awarded2. Power generation from renewable energy sources in India reached 127.01 billion units (BU) in FY20.
With a potential capacity of 363 GW and with policies focused on the renewable energy sector, Northern India is expected to become the hub for renewable energy in India.3
According to the data released by Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), FDI inflow in the Indian non-conventional energy sector stood at US$ 9.83 billion between April 2000 and December 2020. More than US$ 42 billion has been invested in India’s renewable energy sector since 2014. New investment in clean energy in the country reached US$ 11.1 billion in 2018. According to the analytics firm British Business Energy, India ranked 3rd globally in terms of its renewable energy investments and plans in 2020.
Some major investments and developments in the Indian renewable energy sector are as follows:
- In July 2021, National Thermal Power Corporation Renewable Energy Ltd. (NTPC REL), NTPC's fully owned subsidiary, sent out a tender to domestic manufacturers to build India's first green hydrogen fueling station in Leh, Ladakh.
- In June 2021, the Reliance Industries announced to invest Rs. 750,00 crore (US$ 10.07 billion) the green energy segment.
- In June 2021, Suzlon secured a contract for 252 MW wind power project from CLP India. The project is expected to be commissioned in 2022.
- In June 2021, Tata Power Solar secured a contract worth Rs. 686 crore (US$ 93.58 million) from the NTPC to build 210 MW projects in Gujarat.
- In May 2021, Adani Green Energy Ltd. (AGEL), signed share purchase agreements for the acquisition of 100% interest in SB Energy India from SoftBank Group (SBG) and Bharti Group. The total renewable portfolio is 4,954 MW spread across four states in India.
- In May 2021, Virescent Infrastructure, a renewable energy platform, acquired 76% of India’s solar asset portfolio of Singapore-based Sindicatum Renewable Energy Company Pte Ltd.
- In April 2021, Central Electricity Authority approved the uprating of JSW Energy Karcham Wangtoo hydro power plant to 1,091 megawatt (MW) from 1,000 MW.
- In April 2021, GE Power India's approved the acquisition of 50% stake in NTPC GE Power Services Pvt. Ltd. for Rs 7.2 crore (US$ 0.96 million).
- The NTPC is expected to commission India’s largest floating solar power plant in Ramagundam, Telangana by May-June 2022. The expected total installed capacity is 447MW.
- In March 2021, Edelweiss Infrastructure Yield Plus (EIYP), an alternative investment fund managed by Edelweiss Alternative Asset Advisors, acquired a 74% stake in the solar portfolio of Engie Group in India.
- In March 2021, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US International Development Finance Corporation (DFC) reported a loan guarantee programme worth US$ 41 million to support Indian SME investments in renewable energy.
- In March 2021, Adani Green Energy announced plan to acquire a 250 MW solar power project in the northern state of Rajasthan (commissioned by Hero Future Energies). The expected deal value stands at ~Rs.10 billion (US$ 136.20 million).
- In March 2021, Adani Green Energy Ltd. (AGEL) signed a contract to acquire a 100% stake in SkyPower Global's 50 MW solar power project in Telangana. This would increase its operational renewable capacity to 3,395 MW, with a total renewable portfolio of 14,865 MW.
- In March 2021, JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) entered a loan agreement with Tata Cleantech Capital Limited (TCCL) for JPY 10 billion (US$ 90.31 million) to enable the firm provide loans to companies in India for renewable energy production, e-mobility solutions and energy conservation in order to help offset the effects of climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (in line with the Green Loan Principles).
- In March 2021, the European Union joined the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI), an India-led initiative aimed at ensuring long-term development while addressing the climate change's adverse effects.
- In March 2021, India and the US agreed to restructure their strategic energy partnership to concentrate on cleaner energy sectors including biofuels and hydrogen production.
- India added 2,320 MW of solar capacity amidst COVID-19 pandemic from January to September 2020.
- In October 2020, post approval from NITI Aayog and the Department of Investment and Public Asset Management, NTPC set up a wholly owned company for its renewable energy business—NTPC Renewable Energy Ltd. NTPC is targeting to generate ~30% or 39 GW of its overall power capacity from renewable energy sources by 2032.
- The Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) implemented large-scale central auctions for solar parks and has awarded contracts for 47 parks with over 25 GW of combined capacity.
- In April 2020, Vikram Solar bagged a 300 megawatt (MW) solar plant project for Rs. 1,750 crore (US$ 250.39 million) from National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd (NTPC) under CPSU-II scheme in a reverse bidding auction.
- Adani Group aims to become the world’s largest solar power company by 2025 and the biggest renewable energy firm by 2030.
Some initiatives by Government of India to boost India’s renewable energy sector are as follows:
- In July 2021, to encourage rooftop solar (RTS) throughout the country, notably in rural regions, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy plans to undertake Rooftop Solar Programme Phase II, which aims to install RTS capacity of 4,000 MW in the residential sector by 2022 with a provision of subsidy.
- In July 2021, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) gave the go ahead to NTPC Renewable Energy Ltd., a 100% subsidiary of NTPC, to build a 4,750 MW renewable energy park at the Rann of Kutch in Khavada, Gujarat. This will be India's largest solar park to be developed by the country's leading power producer.
- In June 2021, Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. (IREDA) has invited bids from solar module manufacturers for setting up solar manufacturing units under the central government’s Rs. 4,500 crore (US$ 616.76 million) Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme.
- As of March 2021, State Bank of India financed Rs. 319.18 billion (US$ 4.28 billion) in renewable energy projects in India, wherein the bank financed 752 renewable energy projects, with a total installed capacity of 13.8 GW.
- In June 2021, the Competition Commission of India (CCI) approved ReNew Power to exchange equity shareholding by its existing shareholders with shares of ReNew Global. Along with this, the CCI also approved a reverse triangular merger of ReNew Global’s subsidiary with RMG II.
- In April 2021, the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) and CEEW’s Centre for Energy Finance (CEEW-CEF) jointly launched the India Renewables Dashboard that provides detailed operational information on renewable energy (RE) projects in India.
- In April 2021, the Ministry of Power (MoP) released the draft National Electricity Policy (NEP) 2021 and has invited suggestions from all stakeholders such as Central Public Sector Undertakings, Solar Energy Corporation of India, power transmission companies, financial institutions like Reserve Bank of India, Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency, HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank, industrial, solar, and wind associations, and state governments.
- In March 2021, the Union Cabinet approved a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in the field of renewable energy cooperation between India and the French Republic.
- In March 2021, Haryana announced a scheme with a 40% subsidy for a 3 KW plant in homes, in accordance with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy's guidelines, to encourage solar energy in the state. For solar systems of 4-10 KW, a 20% subsidy would be available for installation from specified companies.
- In March 2021, India introduced Gram Ujala, an ambitious programme to include the world's cheapest LED bulbs in rural areas for Rs. 10 (US$ 0.14), advancing its climate change policy and bolstering its self-reliance credentials.
- In the Union Budget 2021-22, Ministry for New and Renewable Energy was allocated Rs. 5,753 crore (US$ 788.45 million) and Rs. 300 crore (US$ 41.12 million) for the ‘Green Energy Corridor’ scheme.
- Under Union Budget 2021-22, the government has provided an additional capital infusion of Rs. 1,000 crore (US$ 137.04 million) to Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) and Rs. 1,500 crore (US$ 205.57 million) to Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency.
- To encourage domestic production, customs duty on solar inverters has been increased from 5% to 20%, and on solar lanterns from 5% to 15%.
- In November 2020, Ladakh got the largest solar power project set-up under the central government’s 'Make In India' initiative at Leh Indian Air Force Station with a capacity of 1.5 MW.
- In November 2020, the government announced production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme worth Rs. 4,500 crore (US$ 610.23 million) for high-efficiency solar PV modules manufacturing over a five-year period.
- On November 17, Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a joint venture of PSUs under the Ministry of Power and the Department of New & Renewable Energy (DNRE), Goa, signed a memorandum of understanding to discuss roll-out of India’s first Convergence Project in the state.
- In October 2020, the government announced a plan to set up an inter-ministerial committee under NITI Aayog to forefront research and study on energy modelling. This, along with a steering committee, will serve the India Energy Modelling Forum (IEMF), which was jointly launched by NITI Aayog and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
- India plans to add 30 GW of renewable energy capacity along a desert on its western border such as Gujarat and Rajasthan.
- Delhi Government decided to shut down thermal power plant in Rajghat and develop it into 5,000 KW solar park
- The Government of India has announced plans to implement a US$ 238 million National Mission on advanced ultra-supercritical technologies for cleaner coal utilisation.
- Indian Railways is taking increased efforts through sustained energy efficient measures and maximum use of clean fuel to cut down emission level by 33% by 2030.
The Government is committed to increased use of clean energy sources and is already undertaking various large-scale sustainable power projects and promoting green energy heavily. In addition, renewable energy has the potential to create many employment opportunities at all levels, especially in rural areas. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has set an ambitious target to set up renewable energy capacities to the tune of 227 GW by 2022, of which about 114 GW is planned for solar, 67 GW for wind and other for hydro and bio among other. India’s renewable energy sector is expected to attract investment worth US$ 80 billion in the next four years. About 5,000 Compressed Biogas plants will be set up across India by 2023.
It is expected that by 2040, around 49% of the total electricity will be generated by renewable energy as more efficient batteries will be used to store electricity, which will further cut the solar energy cost by 66% as compared to the current cost. *Use of renewables in place of coal will save India Rs. 54,000 crore (US$ 8.43 billion) annually3. Renewable energy will account for 55% of the total installed power capacity by 2030.
As per the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) estimates, by 2029-30, the share of renewable energy generation would increase from 18% to 44%, while that of thermal is expected to reduce from 78% to 52%.
According to the year-end review (2020) by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, another 49.59 GW of renewable energy capacity is under installation and an additional 27.41 GW of capacity has been tendered. This puts the total capacity of renewable energy projects (already commissioned or in the pipeline) at ~167 GW.
The Government of India wants to develop a ‘green city’ in every state of the country, powered by renewable energy. The ‘green city’ will mainstream environment-friendly power through solar rooftop systems on all its houses, solar parks on the city’s outskirts, waste to energy plants and electric mobility-enabled public transport systems.
Note: 1- According to Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness index 2018 by EY;
2- As per data from the Economic Survey; *According to the Bloomberg New Energy Outlook 2018; 3 - Greenpeace India, Union Budget 2021-22, SPV - Solar Photovoltaic System, MWeq - Megawatt Equivalent
References: Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Media Reports, Press Releases
Note: Conversion rate used in August 2021, Rs. 1 = US$ 0.01348
Disclaimer: This information has been collected through secondary research and IBEF is not responsible for any errors in the same.