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India's electric vehicle (EV) market is estimated to be a Rs. 50,000 crore (US$ 7.09 billion) opportunity by 2025, with two- and three-wheelers expected to drive higher electrification of the vehicles.

Automobile Industry in India

    Last updated on Dec, 17 2021

Indian Automobile Industry Report  (Size: 1.13 MB ) (November, 2021)


In 2020, India was the fifth-largest auto market, with ~3.49 million units combined sold in the passenger and commercial vehicles categories. It was the seventh-largest manufacturer of commercial vehicles in 2019.

The two wheelers segment dominate the market in terms of volume owing to a growing middle class and a young population. Moreover, the growing interest of the companies in exploring the rural markets further aided the growth of the sector.

India is also a prominent auto exporter and has strong export growth expectations for the near future. In addition, several initiatives by the Government of India and major automobile players in the Indian market is expected to make India a leader in the two-wheeler and four-wheeler market in the world by 2020.

Market Size

Domestic automobiles production increased at 2.36% CAGR between FY16-20 with 26.36 million vehicles being manufactured in the country in FY20. Overall, domestic automobiles sales increased at 1.29% CAGR between FY16-FY20 with 21.55 million vehicles being sold in FY20.

In FY21, the total passenger vehicles production reached 22,652,108.

In October 2021, the total production volume of passenger vehicles (except for BMW, Mercedes, Tata Motors & Volvo Auto), three wheelers, two wheelers and quadricycles reached 2,214,745 units.

Two wheelers and passenger vehicles dominate the domestic Indian auto market. Passenger car sales are dominated by small and mid-sized cars. Two wheelers and passenger cars accounted for 80.8% and 12.9% market share, respectively, accounting for a combined sale of over 20.1 million vehicles in FY20.

In July-September 2021 quarter, the luxury car market registered sales of 8,500 units.

Overall, automobile export reached 4.77 million vehicles in FY20, growing at a CAGR of 6.94% during FY16-FY20. Two wheelers made up 73.9% of the vehicles exported, followed by passenger vehicles at 14.2%, three wheelers at 10.5% and commercial vehicles at 1.3%.

Indian automobile exports stood at 1,419,430 units from April 2021 to June 2021 as compared to 436,500 units in April 2020 to June 2020.

EV sales, excluding E-rickshaws, in India witnessed a growth of 20% and reached 1.56 lakh units in FY20 driven by two wheelers. According to NITI Aayog and Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) India's EV finance industry is likely to reach Rs. 3.7 lakh crore (US$ 50 billion) in 2030. A report by India Energy Storage Alliance estimated that EV market in India is likely to increase at a CAGR of 36% until 2026. In addition, projection for EV battery market is forecast to expand at a CAGR of 30% during the same period.

  • Premium motorbike sales in India recorded seven-fold jump in domestic sales, reaching 13,982 units during April-September 2019. The luxury car market is expected to register sales of 28,000-33,000 units in 2021, up from 20,000-21,000 units sold in 2020. The entry of new manufacturers and new launches is likely to propel this market in 2021.



To keep up with the growing demand, several auto makers have started investing heavily in various segments of the industry during the last few months. The industry attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) worth US$ 30.51 billion between April 2000 and June 2021 accounting for ~5.5% of the total FDI during the period according to the data released by Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).

Some of the recent/planned investments and developments in the automobile sector in India are as follows:

  • In November 2021, Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) and two other public sector oil firms announced that they will install 22,000 electric vehicle (EV) charging stations over the next 3–5 years.
  • In November 2021, Tata Motors announced that they will establish vehicle scrappage centres under a franchise set up at Ahmedabad, Gujarat, by the first quarter of the next fiscal year.
  • In November 2021, Skoda Auto announced plans to locally manufacture electric cars in India. However, the firm may bring its first EV, the Enyaq, through the CBU route, before committing to local manufacturing.
  • In November 2021, Hero Motor (HMC), the parent company of Hero Cycles, entered a joint venture partnership with Yamaha, a Japanese two-wheeler major, to make electric motors for e-bicycles for the global market.
  • In October 2021, Tata Motors announced that private equity group TPG along with ADQ of Abu Dhabi has agreed to invest Rs. 7,500 crore (US$ 1 billion) in its EV division.
  • In September 2021, Hero Electric announced plans to expand production capacity at its facility in Ludhiana, Punjab, to >5 lakh units by March 2022, up from the existing capacity of 1 lakh units per year.
  • In September 2021, Hero Electric announced plans to expand production capacity at its facility in Ludhiana, Punjab, to >5 lakh units by March 2022, up from the existing capacity of 1 lakh units per year.
  • In August 2021, Hindustan Zinc Ltd. announced a US$ 1 billion investment across its eight mines to replace diesel-powered trucks and equipment with battery EVs.
  • In July 2021, Maruti Suzuki India announced a Rs. 18,000 crore (US$ 2.42 billion) investment in a new manufacturing facility in Haryana, with an installed capacity of 7.5-10 lakh units per annum. As it prepares to protect its market dominance, the company aims to increase capital spending by 67% to Rs. 4,500 (US$ 605 million) crore in FY22.
  • In July 2021, Hyundai Motor India opened its new corporate headquarters in Gurgaon, backed by a Rs. 2,000 crore (US$ 269 million) investment.
  • In April 2021, Mahindra & Mahindra announced a three-year investment plan in the electric vehicles segment of Rs. 3,000 crore (US$ 403 million).
  • Between January and July 2021, EV component makers, electric commercial vehicles and last-mile delivery companies invested a total of Rs. 25,045 crore (US$ 3.67 billion) on electric vehicles.
  • In FY21, passenger vehicles sales reached 27.11 lakhs units, two-wheelers reached 151.19 lakhs units, commercial vehicles sales reached 5.69 lakhs units and for three-wheelers it was 2.16 lakhs units.
  • In 2019-20, the total passenger vehicles sales reached ~2.8 million, while ~2.7 million units were sold in FY21.
  • In February 2021, the Delhi government started the process to set up 100 vehicle battery charging points across the state to push adoption of electric vehicles.
  • In January 2021, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) announced an investment of US$ 250 million to expand its local product line-up in India.
  • A cumulative investment of ~Rs. 12.5 trillion (US$180 billion) in vehicle production and charging infrastructure would be required until 2030 to meet India’s electric vehicle (EV) ambitions.
  • In January 2021, Lamborghini announced it is aiming to achieve sales in India higher than the 2019-levels, after recovering from pandemic-induced disruptions.
  • In January 2021, Tesla, the electric car maker, set up a R&D centre in Bengaluru and registered its subsidiary as Tesla India Motors and Energy Private Limited.

Government Initiatives

The Government of India encourages foreign investment in the automobile sector and has allowed 100% foreign direct investment (FDI) under the automatic route.

Some of the recent initiatives taken by the Government of India are -

  • In November 2021, the union government added >100 advanced technologies, including alternate fuel systems such as compressed natural gas (CNG), Bharat Stage VI compliant flex fuel engines, electronic control units (ECU) for safety, advanced driver assist systems and e-quadricycles, under the production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme for the automobiles.
  • In September 2021, the Union Minister for Road, Transport and Highways, Mr. Nitin Gadkari announced that government is planning to make it mandatory for car manufacturers to produce flex-fuel engines after getting the required permissions from the Supreme Court of India.
  • In September 2021, the Indian government issued notification regarding a PLI scheme for automobile and auto components worth Rs. 25,938 crore (US$ 3.49 billion). This scheme is expected to bring investments of over Rs. 42,500 (US$ 5.74 billion) by 2026.
  • The Indian government has planned ~US$ 3.5 billion in incentives over a five-year period until 2026 under a revamped scheme to encourage production and export of clean technology vehicles.
  • As of June 2021, Rs. 871 crore (US$ 117 million) has been spent under the FAME-II scheme, 87,659 electric vehicles have been supported through incentives and 6,265 electric buses have been sanctioned to various state/city transportation undertakings.
  • In July 2021, India inaugurated the national automotive test tracks (NATRAX), which is Asia’s longest high-speed track to facilitate automotive testing.
  • In Union Budget 2021-22, the government introduced the voluntary vehicle scrappage policy, which is likely to boost demand for new vehicles after removing old unfit vehicles currently plying on the Indian roads.
  • In February 2021, the Delhi government started the process to set up 100 vehicle battery charging points across the state to push adoption of electric vehicles.
  • The Union Cabinet outlaid Rs. 57,042 crore (US$ 7.81 billion) for automobiles & auto components sector in production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme under the Department of Heavy Industries.
  • The Government aims to develop India as a global manufacturing centre and a Research and Development (R&D) hub.
  • Under NATRiP, the Government of India is planning to set up R&D centres at a total cost of US$ 388.5 million to enable the industry to be on par with global standards.
  • The Ministry of Heavy Industries, Government of India has shortlisted 11 cities in the country for introduction of EVs in their public transport systems under the FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid) and Electric Vehicles in India) scheme. The Government will also set up incubation centre for start-ups working in the EVs space.
  • In February 2019, the Government of India approved FAME-II scheme with a fund requirement of Rs. 10,000 crore (US$ 1.39 billion) for FY20-22.


Following are the achievements of the Indian automotive sector:

  • In H12019, automobile manufacturers invested US$ 501 million in India’s auto-tech start-ups according to Venture intelligence.
  • Investment flow into EV start-ups in 2019 (till end of November) increased nearly 170% to reach US$ 397 million.
  • On 29th July 2019, Inter-ministerial panel sanctioned 5,645 electric buses for 65 cities.
  • NATRiP’s proposal for “Grant-In-Aid for test facility infrastructure for EV performance Certification from NATRIP Implementation Society” under the FAME Scheme was approved by Project Implementation and Sanctioning Committee (PISC) on 3rd January 2019.
  • Under NATRiP, following testing and research centres have been established in the country since 2015.
    • International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Manesar
    • National Institute for Automotive Inspection, Maintenance & Training (NIAIMT), Silchar
    • National Automotive Testing Tracks (NATRAX), Indore
    • Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI), Pune
    • Global Automotive Research Centre (GARC), Chennai
  • SAMARTH Udyog - Industry 4.0 centres: ‘Demo cum experience’ centres are being set up in the country for promoting smart and advanced manufacturing helping SMEs to implement Industry 4.0 (automation and data exchange in manufacturing technology).

Road Ahead

The automobile industry is supported by various factors such as availability of skilled labour at low cost, robust R&D centres, and low-cost steel production. The industry also provides great opportunities for investment and direct and indirect employment to skilled and unskilled labour.

Indian automotive industry (including component manufacturing) is expected to reach Rs. 16.16-18.18 trillion (US$ 251.4-282.8 billion) by 2026.

The Indian auto industry is expected to record strong growth in 2021-22, post recovering from effects of COVID-19 pandemic. Electric vehicles, especially two-wheelers, are likely to witness positive sales in 2021-22.

References: International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers, Media Reports, Press Releases, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA), Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), Union Budget 2021-22

Disclaimer: This information has been collected through secondary research and IBEF is not responsible for any errors in the same.


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